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ww1 -103649 - 15.07.2019 : Ratko Obrenovic - (0)
Milunka Savic - The Forgotten War Heroine
Even though Milunka Savic was one of the highest decorated soldiers of the entire Great War, she was forgotten soon after it ended. Her great deeds for the Serbian Army and even the impossible fact that she was serving as a female soldier became lost and were only recently discovered.
srebrenica_eng -97371 - 19.10.2016 : Ratko Obrenović Detroit, USA - (0)
Politics of Genocide: Bosna i Hercegovina
From the book "Politics of Genocide" author dr. Edward S. Herman
During the civil wars that accompanied the dismantling of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, the United States, Germany, NATO, and the European Union (EU) all sided with the national groups seeking to break away from the unified federal state, and opposed the national group that held out for the longest time to preserve it, the Serbs; this placed the Western bloc solidly behind the Croats and Slovenes, then the Bosnian Muslims, and finally the Kosovo Albanians. The wars in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995) and Kosovo (1998-1999) received enormous attention in the United States and in the West generally, helped along by the creation of the ICTY and its determined service on behalf of NATO and its Yugoslavian clients (the Bosnian Muslims, Croatians, and Kosovo Albanians) and in opposition to the demonized Serbs. Because the wars were supported and even carried out by the NATO powers, and there was significant ethnic cleansing and ethnic killings, it goes almost without saying that not only "ethnic cleansing" but also the words "massacre" and "genocide" were quickly applied to Serb operations. The remarkable inflation of claims of Serb evil and violence (and playing down of NATO clients' violence), with fabricated "concentration camps, " "rape camps," and similar Nazi- and Auschwitz-like analogies, caused the onetime head of the U. S. intelligence section in Sarajevo, Lieutenant Colonel John Sray, to go public even before the end of the wars in Bosnia with his claim that "America has not been so pathetically deceived since Robert McNamara helped to micromanage and escalate the Vietnam War. Popular perceptions pertaining to the Bosnian Muslim government have been forged by a prolific propaganda machine. A strange combination of three major spin doctors, including public relations (PR) firms in the employ of the Bosniacs, media pundits, and sympathetic elements of the US State Department, have managed to manipulate illusions to further Muslim goals."
The Bosnian government started claims of 200,000 deaths by early 1993, only some nine months after the start of these civil wars, and figures such as this and 250,000 (and sometimes higher) quickly became institutionalized in the establishment media, helping to push the "genocide" claim and to justify calls for foreign intervention to protect the Bosnian Muslims. But this claim came to grief in 2005-2007, when two different studies, the first sponsored by the ICTY itself and the other by the Norwegian government, concluded that the Bosnian conflicts had resulted in combined deaths on the order of one hundred thousand for all sides, including both civilians and military victims. Given their sources, these findings could not easily be ridiculed as "holocaust denial" or "revisionism, " but they were treated in very low-key in the Western media, only slowly displacing the much higher 200,000- 250,000 figures and with no analyses and explanations of the earlier gullible acceptance of the implausible and unverified Bosnian Muslim propaganda claims.
Of course, the "Srebrenica massacre" of July 1995 has been cited heavily and repeated endlessly, and with the greatest indignation, to demonstrate that "genocide" actually had taken place in Bosnia. This was helped along by the fact that both the ICTY Trial Judgment and decision on Appeal in the case of the Bosnian Serb General Radislav Krstic argued that genocide could occur in one "small geographical area" (the town of Srebrenica), even one where the villainous party had taken the trouble to bus all the women, children, and the elderly men to safety - that is, incontestably had not killed any but "Bosnian Muslim men of military age. "90 As Michael Mandel observes, "Genocide was transformed in this judgment, not into mere ethnic cleansing but into the killing of potential fighters during a war for military advantage. In the Krstic case, the concept of genocide, except as pure propaganda, lost all contact with the Holocaust- a program for the extermination of a whole people." The case for eight thousand "men and boys" being executed at Srebrenica is extremely thin, resting in good part on the difficulty in separating executions from battle killings (of which there were many in the July 1995 Srebrenica actions), partly on highly contestable witness evidence (much under coercive plea bargaining), and an interest and passionate will-to-believe the worst of the thoroughly demonized Serbs. A videotape of Bosnian Serbs killing six Bosnian Muslim men, far from Srebrenica and of dubious provenance, was read even by respectable Western analysts as serious evidence that eight thousand had been executed at Srebrenica.
But even if an event such as the Srebrenica massacre occurred exactly as accepted by the Western establishment, we are still faced with the anomaly that the total number of deaths in Bosnia (one hundred thousand on all sides), and even more so the number of Bosnian Muslim civilian deaths during the four years of "genocide" (some thirty-three thousand in all), pales into relative insignificance when compared to the deaths suffered by Iraqi civilians during the thirteen-year-long "sanctions of mass destruction" and the now seven-year-long U. S. invasion and occupation. Given the 800, 000 and one million death estimates for the two Iraqi cases, deaths there exceeded the Bosnian Muslim civilian death toll by 24-to-1 and 30-to-1, respectively. However, as Table 1 shows, the use of the word "genocide" was greater for Bosnia by six times for the sanction-deaths and thirty-seven times for deaths during the invasion-occupation. The anomaly of disparate word usage (and differential attention and indignation) can only be explained by the adaptation of the media and intellectuals to the propaganda and public relations needs of the Western political establishment. They are very attentive to and passionate about Nefarious, hence "genocidal, " bloodbaths; but they are exceedingly quiet over those that are Constructive and display "complexities."
srebrenica_eng -97075 - 06.09.2016 : Dr. Edward Herman USA - (1)
The Srebrenica Massacre was a Gigantic Political Fraud
Renowned author Dr. Edward Herman spoke with John Robles of the Voice of Russia regarding the facts surrounding the Srebrenica Massacre, the pretext for the "humanitarian" invasion of the former Yugoslavia, and takes apart the "official" ; version that has always been promoted by the West.
Dr. Herman reveals that there were in fact multiple massacres at Srebrenica, and that the killing of Bosnian-Muslim soldiers at Srebrenica (the West's pretext) was in response to the killing of over 2, 000 Serb civilians, mostly women and children, at the location.
Robles: My first question is about "The Srebrenica massacre" and the way that the establishment manipulated the media. Can you tell us, or give us some insights, on that?
Herman: The Srebrenica massacre, actually I always put it in quote marks, because actually there were lots of massacres in the Srebrenica area, the one before July 1995 there were vast numbers of Serbs killed by Muslim, Bosnian Muslim, forces who went out of Srebrenica.
One estimate is that there were more than 150 Serbs villages that were totally wiped out and one study gives actually gives the names of 2, 383 Serb civilians who were killed between 1992 and July, 1995. So then we'd call that "the first Srebrenica massacre". Then in July 1995.
Robles: Just to be very clear, these were Serbs, that were being killed.
Herman: Yes! We're talking about 2, 383 Serb civilians killed before July 1995. And the Bosnian Serb Army took over Srebrenica in July, 1995, and there were deaths and executions after that. That's what's called in the West "the Srebrenica massacre", but, in fact, that's really mainly a political construct.
The numbers executed there were probably in the order of between 500 and 1, 000. In other words, less than half of the number of Serbs civilians killed before July, 1995.
And the Western claim is that 8, 000 men and boys were executed in the quote Srebrenica massacre, but notice these were men, always men, all men, they were all soldiers, whereas those 2, 383 civilians killed included very large numbers of women and children.
We're talking about the execution in the second massacre of essentially army people. And of course they had never proved that there were 7, 000 or 8, 000, even men and boys killed. The bodies in the graves added up to something like 2, 500.
A lot of those bodies were combat deaths. One of the beauties of the Western propaganda system is that all the bodies they found after July, 1995, they count as executed, even though we know very well that a large number were killed in combat.
Herman: Also another important fact about the Srebrenica massacre is that all those killings of Serbs took place coming out of an area that was supposed to be a "safe haven". Srebrenica was a safe place, a safe haven. It was supposed to be demilitarized, but it never was.
So the Bosnian Muslim soldiers would come out to Srebrenica and they would kill Serb civilians. This is all completely ignored in the Western media. It's as if the Serbs came in July and started to kill arbitrarily.
In fact, the U. N. military in that area, a French offical name Phillip Morillon, was asked by the Yugoslav tribunal, "Why the Serbs did it?"
He said he's absolutely convinced that they did it because of what the commander of Srebrenica's Bosnian Muslims did to the Serbs before July 1995.
This is the UN Army head, but you won't see that in the Western press!
In other words, the first massacre is what led to the lesser second massacre of namely military aged people.
The whole business of the Srebrenica massacre is a gigantic political fraud. There was a massacre, but it was a responsive vengeance massacre, women and children were not killed.
One of the features of the "quote" Srebrenica massacre, that is the second one, is that 20, 000 Srebrenica women and children were bussed to safety by the Serb army. Women and children were not killed, only military aged people and a very large fraction of those that did die, died in combat.
So my own estimate, as I said, is that maybe there were 500 to 1, 000 executions. Vengeance executions.
Robles: I'm sorry. How many?
Herman: 500 to 1, 000 I would say.
Robles: 500 to 1, 000.
Herman: Yes. So there was a significant massacre, but put it in its context! This was a war, this was an army that had seen their own civilians massacred on a much larger scale. That is completely suppressed in the West, as if the Serbs came in to Srebrenica and started to kill because of a blood lust! It's absolutely a fraud!
So, I regard the Srebrenica massacre as a tremendous propaganda triumph. The West wanted to go after Serbia and they avoided peace. They needed this massacre.
Robles: You said, about 2, 380 civilians, women and children mainly.
Herman: Serbian women and children, yes.
Robles: " were killed initially. This was the Srebrenica"
Herman: The first massacre between 1992 and July 1995. These were Serb civilians. There were also hundreds of Serb military killed in that period, I am just talking about civilians!
Robles: The civilians, right! And then in retaliation approximately 2, 500 Muslim. Bosnian Muslims soldiers were killed.
That's misleading, because the thrust of the 8, 000 claim is that they were executed but those 2000-plus that were killed, a very large fraction were killed in combat.
Robles: In combat. Okay, I see. I see.
Herman: Yes, and the executions were, as I say probably in the order of 500 to 1, 000.
Robles: Okay. So those were Bosnian Muslims who were found to be directly responsible for killing massive numbers of Serbian civilians. Right?
Herman: The Serbs actually had lists of Bosnian Muslim soldiers they wanted to get, but I canft honestly say they were the only ones who were executed. But certainly, a significant number of those executed were on those lists, those vengeance lists.
Edward S. Herman is an American economist and media analyst with a specialty in corporate and regulatory issues as well as political economy and the media. He's a Professor Emeritus of Finance at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. He's also the author of several books, namely "Manufacturing Consent" which he wrote with Noam Chomsky and "The Srebrenica Massacre: Evidence, Context and Politics".
war_crimes -92339 - 08.02.2015 : Ratko Obrenović Detroit, USA - (0)
Attack on RS Army Military Convoy In Zepa Canyon on Jun 04, 1992 (2)
Ambush in Zepa gorge
On June 4, 1992 in the early morning on that day, one armed RS Army battalion with several military vehicles, under the command of Major Suka Dragan, started from Pale through Han Pijesak towards Zepa. Their task was to deliver food, water, medical and other necessary equipment to VRS members who secured military facility and a TV relay on the Zlovrh hill, in Zepa area.
Many soldiers were murdered after being wounded or captured, when they put away their weapons as a sing of their surrender. Two members of Green Berets shot Serbian soldier Tomic Milenko, son of Diko, born on 01/11/1935 in Novi Karlovci, Indjija Municipality, Republic of Serbia, although he had thrown away his weapon and raised his hands as a sign of surrender, but due to circumstances he stayed alive. Why he was lying down severely wounded, Tomic was listening to cries of other captured Serbian soldiers who begged Muslim to kill them instead of torture the. According to the statement of witnesses of this event, one unidentified helpless severely wounded member of VRS was killed by Lilic Nasko, and the other also unidentified severely wounded VRS member was killed by Kacevic Edhem (other data on the mentioned executors of these crimes are in explanation of criminal charge under items 3 and 4). It was impossible to identify murdered soldiers for their bodies were burnt up after the murder and their corpses were carbonized.
According to obtained evidence and insinuations, the main organizers of the attack on VRS military convoy, of killing the wounded and the captured, and finally of massacring and burning down of corpses were: Cardakovic Ramo, Sahic Hurem, Lilic Nasko, Kacevic Edhem, Palic Avdo, Mujkic Hamed, Jusufovic Rasid, Ridzal Ramiz, Dzebo Rahman, Muratovic Hamed, Cardakovic Emin, Hulovac Benjamin, Omanovic Hasib and Dizdarevic Ago (other data on these persons are stated in the explanation of the charge). They have, contrary to regulations of the Geneva Convention on Treatment of War Prisoners from 12/08/1949, ordered murdering and murdered helpless wounded and captured soldiers, committed sacrileges and burnt their corpses, for what there is photo documentation under Nos. 1-13 and reports of pathologist. In most of the cases it was impossible for experts to determine the cause of death and even to identify 9 bodies, which were greatly damaged by burning.
During the operational research on this crime against wounded and captured VRS soldiers, military medical facility and on the breach of the agreement of the cooperation and maintenance of Zlovrh relay near Zepa, a number of witnesses were heard, photo documents of burnt and exhumed bodies of young soldiers and other medical documentation obtained and all that is included in the charge. Among all testimonies, it is important to look into the testimony given by Lilic Smail, son of Idriz, born in 1949 in Godenje, Han Pijesak Municipality, who was a active member of Moslem military formation that attacked the convoy as well as the testimony of Todorovic Milorad, son of Borisa, born in 1954 in Praca, Pale Municipality, who experienced golgotha of this VRS battalion.
In his testimony, Lilic Smail stated: "In the beginning of May 1992, I started to Han Pijesak together with the workers from Godenje, Podzeplje and Zepa, to get the salary and we were sent back. Upon my arrival to Godenje, meetings of SDA higher leadership were held. A TO unit for the area of Godenje, Podzeplje and other Moslem villages from Han Pijesak Municipality was formed at the beginning. The main person in that HQ was Cardakovic Ramo and Sahic Hurem and Hasanovic Salih were also members of the HQ. Weapons for that unit were obtained earlier through Mujkic Himza, President of SDA for Han Pijesak. Each person who received weapons had to pay for it, some of them even 800 DM. At that time there were no actions, but only guards were held. Some time during May 1992, Palic Avdo was appointed as a TO unit Commander and Cardakovic Ramo as TO Regional HQ Commander, covering the area of Zepa and Han Pijesak. Squad Commander for Godenje and Podzeplje area was Palic Avdo, and for Zepa area it was Beno Kulovac. The HQ was moved to Zepa. At the same time, a unit of militia commanded by Sahic Hurem was formed. Osmanovic Hasib from Zepa was also active in leadership.
Then the oath was signed and all conscripts were obliged to do it, so I did it too. Then I was sent to work, and I had to do physical labor. At that time the unit in our area had two snipers carried by Kamenica Hamza and Cardakovic Emin. Ridzail Ramiz, Dzebo Rahman, Muratovic Hamed and Lilic Nasko were distinguished for their extremism.
Sometime in the beginning of June, Zepa Squad blocked Zlovrh where JNA was placed. In the morning, a courier from Srebrenica came to the HQ in Godenje where Cardakovic Ramo was, and he said that an army convoy of vehicles and tanks was going down the road towards Zepa. I know that Ramo has said several times to let the convoy through and not prevent their free passing. Ramo ordered everybody to evacuate their respective families into shelters and that was done. Army convoy came from Stoborani towards Godenja, some time before noon. There were around 30 vehicles, several tanks, trucks, cars and busses. The Army passed through villages peacefully - they laughed and told us not to run away and threw us some cigarettes. From Godenje, the convoy went towards Brloznik. After the convoy left, Cardakovic Ramo came and ordered me to cut down three trees, with a power saw, over the road in order to block the road, down which the convoy went. In Secerov Lager I found Lilic Sejo on the road. He was cutting down the trees but he did not know how to put them over the road, so I took the power saw from him and cut down three trees over the road. In my opinion, the aim of that roadblock was to prevent the convoy from turning back as well as to prevent any possible help to them. After I finished with that, I went back to my wife and my children. A heavy shooting could be heard at that time. Standing next to the stable, I was watching the fight between the army and people from ambush.
The ambush was set up in Luke, on the crossroads for Godenje, Purtici and Han Pijesak and the convoy were attacked when some vehicles were already across the wooden bridge. Commander of the ambush was Mujkic Hamed with his soldiers from Brleznik. Later on, a unit from Podzeplje, commanded by Jusupovic Resid, came to help. The fight did not last for a long time and the convoy went on towards Luke, without any major stopping. The convoy was shot at while passing through. The convoy was moving down the road in front of the house of Mujkic Himzo, when I saw Cardakovic Ramo and Sahic Hurem together with soldiers from Godenje, Tobarani and other villages, at least 150 of them getting involved in the fight attacking the convoy from direction of Grobici and along the river. The hardest fight was in Kulevkina Ograda where the convoy was stopped and the road blocked on both sides. That is the place where quarry is, at the border of Han Pijesak and Rogatica municipalities, before Berak village. The attack was done from all sides, because that spot is very convenient for ambushing, being placed in a gorge.
Zepa Squad commanded by Kunovac Beno, was attacking from direction of Berak, and our Squad, commanded by Palic Avdo, from the opposite direction. From direction of Radava, the attack was done by the Squad commanded by Mujkic Hamed and from direction of Godenje by the Squad commanded by Cardakovic Ramo and Sahic Hurem. People from Podzeplje, Plana and Krivaca attacked together with people from Brloznik. The struggle lasted till 20,30 hrs when it was finished with the total defeat of the army in convoy. I have heard that during this struggle Sarija Nuhanovic, from Brloznik, set a car tire on fire and threw it among army vehicles, what caused vehicles in convoy to burn. I do not know exactly what was happening during the fight, because at that time I was in the cave, bellow the house of Hamed Smajic. I have heard later that especially active in that fight were Hakic Hasan, who was carrying a machine gun M-53, Muratovic Hamid, Curic Zejmil and Dizdarevic Ago.
In the evening I was in Godenje village and saw 31 prisoners brought to a school. They were brought by the unit commanded by Sahic Hurem and Cardakovic Ramo. Several prisoners were wounded, one of them severely, who was brought in a tent fly and died the next morning. The prisoners were placed in a small room in school, into which even 10 of them would be hardly placed, so I don't know how 30 of them were managed inside. The wounded were taken care of by a male nurse Dzibo Himza. After that I went home. Bodies of dead soldiers and burnt down vehicles remained on the spot. A great amount of weapons and ammunition was seized on that occasion. I know that two vehicles were also seized- ambulance was driven by Curic Zejmil and a truck by Kamenica Hamza.
Next morning, about 20 of us who were there taken to work, under command of Dzebo Musan were sent to the spot. Every one, who had a gun, took it with him. I did not have any weapons, so I tool nothing. I was together with Lilic Himzo, Lilic Ahmed and Lilic Abid. When we came to the spot, we met Lilic Nasko and around 50 people from Brloznik. It was a complete chaos - many corpses and many burnt and carbonized bodies. We searched the terrain looking for weapons, ammunition and other equipment. I saw one wounded soldier who was standing with his arm against the stable wall. I walked beside him and 10-15 minutes later I heard a shot and saw that the wounded soldier was killed. Later, I heard that Kacevic, whose first name I don't know, killed him. That Kacevic person is young, around 20 years old, blond, from Purtici. His brother is Kacevic Hamed who worked in SIP "Planinsko".
I found the other wounded soldier on the road, who was all covered in blood. While I was passing by him, he asked me to get his cigarettes out of his pocket what I did. I took already open package of cigarettes from his pocket together with the lighter, and then took out one cigarette, lit it up, and gave it to him. He told me to take one cigarette as well, and later he gave me remaining cigarettes and told me "Take it, I won't need it anymore". Then I was called by Curic Zejmil and as I was going towards him, I heard a gun shot and it was obvious who did it - Lilic Nasko, who shot him in the chest from semi-automatic rifle. I immediately approached the soldier and I saw him dead with the half of the cigarette still between his fingers. After the weapons and equipment were collected, we returned to the village.
On the same day, as my wife, father and sister-in-law told me, five soldiers with weapons running away from the spot passed by the cave they were in. The soldiers asked them for the shortest way to the nearest Serbian village and they gave one chocolate to each of the children (7 of them). My sister-in-law showed them the way to Mislove. Later, I heard that they took the road to Berovac and one of them got killed there, but the others made it. Two our soldiers - Nurko Brgulja and Jusuf Dumenjic got killed in Berovac on that occasion.
None of our soldiers got killed during the attack on the convoy but some of them were wounded. After the action, blocked soldiers in Zlovrh surrendered to the Zepa unit and I know that they were released later and they came through Godenje and Stobran to Jelovce.
After 2-3 days, the attack of Serbian army followed and they managed to reach the spot of ambush where the soldiers from convoy got killed. There was no stronger resistance of our soldiers. During that attack, a shop was shelled and the prisoners from the school escaped. Serbian army took all the bodies from the spot. Later, Cardakovic Ramo used to say that it had been a mistake to attack the convoy and that they shouldn't have done it.
Afterwards, the Squad was named "4th June", after the event."
The statement of Lilic who was the attacker corresponds pretty much to the statement of Todorovic who was the defender, who stated:
"In the early morning on 04/06/1992, my company, to which I belonged as a soldier of Republic of Srpska, started to Zlovrh in Zepa area, in order to deliver food, medical and other equipment to VRS soldiers who were securing the transmitter. Before we started, Battalion Commander Major Suka informed us that he had been in that area during previous days and that he agreed with the villagers passing of our convoy, so he expected no problems. The convoy was escorted by one tank, two transporters and one anti-aircraft canon, in any case. Arriving to Jelovci, Han Pijesak Municipality, we found first roadblocks made of tree logs and it wasn't clear to me if they were
put by our army or Moslems from this area. After we passed those first roadblocks, we went through first Moslem village before the canyon and as we saw no villagers, we proceeded towards Zlovrh. On stiff cliffs on both sides of the canyon, I noticed bunkers and parapets but I saw no people in them. Somewhere in that direction I saw two young man and one woman who greeted us while we passed along and soon we came to a village with a Mosque, where we took the turn for Zlovrh. After we passed the village in which we saw a number of men and women hurrying towards the wood, we reached up to a bridge that was destroyed. We got off, intending to mend the bridge and while doing so, Moslems from that area attacked us from infantry weapons without any warning. We got sheltered and responded to their fire, and after the bridge was mended and the fire ceased, we got into the vehicles and moved on. There we got first wounding of our men. After we crossed the river, we came to a ravine between two hills where the Moslems heavily attacked us from all sides. And we had to get off, find shelters around vehicles and respond to the fire. There was panic and mess because many of my comrades were wounded and some of them got killed. Moslems shot the drivers first, so new drivers had to replace them and move on, and some vehicles had to be moved off the road because they were heavily damaged. After we passed through the ravine, we found ourselves in a plain where majority of my comrades got killed and we fought Moslem from that area for a long time. The convoy was cut off because some vehicles remained damaged. I was at the end of the first half of the convoy so we managed to go through the plain and as we moved forward, we kept finding barricades that we removed. In front of us we heard Moslems cutting down trees with power saws making barricades for us. They planned and prepared that earlier, by cutting into them, and as we were approaching, those trees were pulled down. It was not long before we came to a huge barricade, made of tree logs that was not possible to remove even with a power saw, so we tried to remove it with a tank and we failed. The tank got off the road and got stuck, so we couldn't move on. Commander Major Suka took around 20 people and went towards Zlovrh that was allegedly not far away, trying to get through and get in touch with the Command in Pale, since our radio as damaged, in order to ask for help and consult for further actions. After some time, Suka and his people came, carrying one dead soldier and told us that one soldier remained there, for they could not take him out. He also told us that he did not manage to get through to Zlovrh because he ran into their bunkers, where Moslems attacked them with infantry weapons. There were no armed conflicts in that area at that time and regarding the agreement with Major Suka, we were surprised by perfidious attack. If we were to expect it, we would go in different formation and not as many of us would get killed. We spent the night between Thursday and Friday there and it was heavily raining all night long. We put the wounded under the vehicles and
into transporters and the dead on trucks while we took the position around the vehicles and kept guarding as much as possible.
And they kept attacking us on that spot. Taking into account the terrain and stiff cliffs on both sides, Moslems kept throwing tree logs and big rocks on us and our vehicles, so many vehicles got damaged and some people injured. During the next day, Moslems kept attacking us from infantry weapons and we managed to establish a connection with our Command in Pale and they told us that the help was on the way. During that first night, Mico Tomic managed to come to us from last cut-off part of the convoy and he told us that all people from that part of the convoy were killed and burnt up, and that he managed to escape. However, not all the people from that part were killed, some of them were captured and later released by our unit that came to rescue. On 06/06/1992 (Saturday morning) our rescue team came from the direction of Han Pijesak. They managed to get through only to place where the convoy was cut off and where the other part of the convoy remained, so Major Suka told us that we had to get through to them with the rest of the vehicles. We put the wounded into transporters and the dead on the vehicles and we did as we were told. While going back we found barricades again that were by Moslems in the meantime. As we reached the river, we found the bridge destroyed again, so we had to mend it again. Moslems kept shooting on us from the nearby cliffs. During that attack, three young men who came to help us got killed and I don't know if anybody was wounded. After we crossed the river, we managed to reach free area around Han Pijesak and in the afternoon of that day a small group of us who survived arrived at Pale.
I wish to emphasize that upon our arrival to the place where we met the rescue team, we saw a horrible scene - our comrades lying dead on and about the road, many corpses carbonized for they were wet with fuel and burnt up. We collected those bodies, so that none either dead or wounded who was not far from the road, remained, except for one part of those who got lost and remained."
war_crimes -92145 - 14.01.2015 : Ratko Obrenović Detroit, USA - (0)
Attack on RS Army Military Convoy In Zepa Canyon on Jun 04, 1992
ATTACK ON RS ARMY MILITARY CONVOY IN ZEPA CANYON ON JUNE 4, 1992
Organized and long prepared attacks on garrisons and military convoys of regular JNA at the beginning and in the middle of 1992 committed by Islamic fundamentalists, members of Green Berets and so-called Patriotic League, have been continued with the same intensity on regular RS Army when there was no military need for those attacks and when there were verified agreements on letting these convoys pass to their military destination in Zepa area.
Preparations and organization of perfidious attacks, after the set agreements, was done according to the same procedure as in previously mentioned attacks on JNA military convoys in Tuzla and Sarajevo, in order to destroy BH defense system and create conditions for the attack on Serbian people with the aim of their elimination and persecution - ethnic cleansing from BH area. The attack on military convoy in Zepa area showed all hypocrisy, cruelty and seriousness of crimes without precedent in the war, when the wounded and the captured were murdered in the most atrocious ways, vehicles burnt and property destroyed.
The military organizing of Muslims in Zepa region
In spite of the previous agreement with the Muslim leadership in Zepa on free passing for military convoy to the military facility and TV relay Zlovrh, Muslims, organized in Patriotic League and Green Berets, perfidiously attacked the convoy in one gorge in Zepa. On that occasion, 45 members of VRS whose names are enclosed in this information got killed, many wounded and 30 captured. Many vehicles and other equipment were burnt up and destroyed, and wounded soldiers from the convoy were, contrary to the regulations of international law, atrociously killed on the spot (KP No.
This attack was committed by special terrorist groups formed by SDA HQ in Sarajevo and Srebrenica sub-region, for the area of GODENJE, BRLOZNIK and STOBORAN and other villages surrounding Zepa.
All decisions in Muslim part of the leadership were brought in meetings of the highest SDA leadership whose members were the following: Alija Izetbegovic, Ejup Ganic, Haris Silajdzic, Rusmir Mahmutcehajic, Omer Behmen and sometimes Irfan Ajanovic. This leadership founded "Patriotic League" as its military wing. The founding of "Patriotic League", as illegal military organization, started in April 1991, when BH Deputy Minister of Defense, together with Sulejman Vranj and some more Muslims created Instructions on organization and acting in the field. In May 1991 the organization was named "Patriotic League". Sefer Halilovic and Rusmir Mahmutcehajic participated in
its organizing and foundation. "Patriotic league" achieved the high level of military organization and it had 9 regional and 103 municipal HQs with 98.000 soldiers at the beginning of the war (BH had 109 municipalities in total). Municipalities from Eastern Bosnia were also included, especially those from Srebrenica sub-region. For Zepa and Han Pijesak municipalities everything was organized through the commander of "Patriotic League" regional HQ Cardakovic Ramo, and his commander of the squad that attacked VRS military convoy was Pavlic Avdo, and for Zepa area it was Beho Kulovac.
Kustura Zeljko supplied these terrorist formations with weapons in April 1992, and he performed that task through the authorised person of SDA - Demonjic Hazem, born in Olovo village, Gorazde municipality, who lived in Sarajevo (testimony of Cavcic Mehmedalija, son of Mehmed, born in 1957 - DC-1/30). A big amount of infantry weapons was brought, among which the most numerous were AP "Kalasnjikov". All weapons were brought to the house of Kustura Zajko. Other part of weapons came through Osmanlic Ismet, the Chief of PSS Rogatica and the President of SDA Rogatica.
Municipal Board. The following persons helped them distribute weapons:
After Muslim terrorist units were armed, the organization of the attack on military convoy was done by Brigade Commander Osmanovic Hasib with Sehic Muharem, Hasib Mulic, Mujkic Hamed and Cardakovic Ibro.
The first group of diversionists was led by Omerovic Hasib, and the following participated in the attack: Stitkovac Enver, Zimic Abid, Divovic Hamed alias Div, Cavic Meho, Cavcic Bohodil, Zimic Ago, Mehmedovic Alija, Zimic Ramiz, Omanovic Ibro, Zimic Osmo, Podzic Dzevad, Cavcic Hamza, Podzic Ago, Rucic Himzo, Kacevic Omer, Rucic Omer, Hraljo Hamid, Hraljo Ceman, Imamovic Esad, Cavcic Sinan, Imamovic Amir, Cavcic Hamdija, Imamovic Musan, Kacevic Sejdalija, Rucic Ahmo, Kacevic Ohran, Kacevic Galib, Kacevic Hamed, Kacevic Edhem, Kacevic Kemal, Cavic Bego, Kacevic Adil, Cavic Smajo, Hodzic Ragib, Hrulja Osman, Brdanin Ago, Zimic Ibro, Brdanin Avdo, Zimic Hasan, Gluhic Himzo, Zimic Mustafa, Gluhic Camil, Zimic Mehmed, Gluhic Zulfo, Zimic Hamdija, Cesko Sinan, Mesanovic Resid, Kulovac Sabid, Mesanovic Camil, Kulovac Nezir, Hodzic Resid, Kulovac Nedzib, Hodzic Halil, Cesko Salim, Zimic Samedin, Dizdarevic Ago, Cavcic Zejnil, Dizdarevic Hasan, Ramic Hajrudin, Dizdarevic Mujo, Bicic Numo, Ramic Sakib, Mujcinovic Mujo, Vatres Mustafa, Bogilovic Avdo, Omanovic Nusret, Lisic Halid, Kustura Himzo, Kacevic Hamza, Cavcic Himzo, Hajric Mehmed, Cavcic Omer, Cesko Nedzad, Udovcic Jasmin, Kulovac Sead, Otajagic Ferid, Cavkusic Fuad, Holjic Fadil, Cavkusic Sefko, Brankovic Munib, Kulovac Benjamin, Salic Dzemal, Zigic Asim, Karahodzic Iso and Covcic Mehmedalija.
The second group, from the direction of Godenje, was led by Sehic Kurem and Nesib Mulic, and the following participated in the attack: Curic Zejnil, Lilic Bajuzin, Lilic Zajko alias Zuti, Lilic Sejdalija, Lilic Selim, Dzebo Hajrudin, Lilic Safet, Omerspahic Abid, Lilic Socan, Kulic Hasib, Lilic Sejo, Hodzic Ibro, Lilic Sefik, Dzabo Ismet, Lilic Remzo, Podzic Edhem, Podzic Ramiz, Dzebo Suad, Lilic Ibrahim, Dzebo Nedzad, Muratovic Nedzad, Omerspahic Agonja, Muratovic Safet, Smajic Zahid, Kamenica Hamza, Avdic Suad, Kamenica Mujo, Omerspahic Mehmed, Kamenica Ahmet, Lilic Zajko, Avdic Besim, Avdic Zenadil, Sahic Elsadet, Lilic Nasko, Muratovic Hamed, Dzebo Rahman, Muratovic Emin, Nakic Hasan and his brother Avdic Meho alias Pero, Zigic Nijaz, Dzebo Musan, Zigic Rasim, Lilic Himzo, Zigic Zajim, Lilic Abid, Omerspahic Hurija, Dzebo Meho, Omerspahic Nusret, Curic Mehmedalija, Lilic Ahmet and Muratovic Dzevad alias Ciro.
The third group, from the direction of Brloznik village, was organized and commanded by Mujkic Hamed alias Hajva, and the folloeing participated in the attack: Mujkic Hasib, Mujkic Muhamed, Mujkic Ahmo, Mujkic Mehmed, Mujkic Himzo, Nuhanovic Sahman, Mujkic Kadija, Nuhanovic Hamzo, Mujkic Ibrahim alias Alkan, Ferlak Hajrudin, Nuhanovic Sabrija, Nuhanovic Mustafa, Nuhanovic Neil, Nuhanovic Mevludin, Nuhanovic Jusuf, Nuhanovic Meho, Nuhanovic Sarija and Mujkic Selman.
The fourth group, from the direction of Stoborane and helped with people from Podzepolje was led and commanded by Ibro Cardakovic, and the following participated in the attack: Cardakovic Ramiz alias Zoran, Cardakovic Alsad, Cardakovic Safet, Jusufovic Rasid, Bitic Mujo, Ridzal Ramiz, Sejfic Sead,
Gusic Ramiz alias Cajner, Hodzic Hasan, Hodzic Zejnil, Hodzic Alija, son of Zaim, Hasanovic Ekrem, Dzebo Himzo, Ivojevic Jusuf, Cardakovic Emin alias Braco, Jusufovic Hajrudin, Hodzic Hamdija, Hodzic Zejnil, Hasanovic Salko and Krestalica Mehmed.
war_bosnia -84727 - 01.05.2013 : Ognjen Knn - (0)
False Propaganda And Lies To Destroy Serbs
Adrian A. McQueen, a young British man, made an extremely well-documented short documentary film showing how Serbs have been unfairly targeted by world powers, media and the Vatican. Adrian A. McQueen said:
The Serbs have been the most demonised group of modern times and their side of the story has never been presented to the world. This ethnic group in the Balkans have been unfairly demonised and most of the world have believed the false propaganda and outright lies. The mistreatment and false representation of the Serbs, an Orthodox Christian ethnic group in the Balkans, is a prime example how the media, historians and governments can deliberately distort facts and rally together to target a group and accomplish their greedy objectives and aims.
Well, this is a fantastic documentary film that exposes well documented the long-term anti-Serb propaganda and lies about Serbia and the Serbs:
ustashe -83697 - 17.03.2013 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (2)
The Destruction of Anti-Communism in Yugoslavia
Draza Mihajlovic, an officer in the Army of Royal Yugoslavia who had studied methods of irregular warfare, became t first leader of Yugoslav military resistance against the invading Germans and Italians in 1941. He was supported by the Allies, described in America and Britain as "The Balkan Eagle", 'The Robin Hood of Serbia' and 'The White Hope of the Allies'. In 1942 General Dwight D. Eisenhower, then Allied Commander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean, sent the Yugoslav hero a telegram of congratulation on his valiant campaign of military resistance. General Charles de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces, awarded the Croix de Guerre to his fellow freedom fighter against 'the common enemy'. At the time the Wrhrmacht, commanded in North Africa by Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, was less than 30 miles from Alexandria. Mihailovic's guerrilla campaign slowed the flow of reinforcements and war material to Rommel: He was showed with thanks by Britain's military leaders, and presented with a purse of gold on behalf of King George VI.
After the Teheran Conference between Roosewelt, Churchil and Stalin in November 1943 Mihailovic's star began to wane. The wider course of the war influenced the perceptions of the leaders of the two democracies, Roosevelt and Churchill. But a critical factor, never appreciated at the time, was the role played by Communist agents in the British intelligence services. Eventually, the western allies were persuaded to back the Communist Partisans of Josip Broz Tito', and to effectively terminate their support for the much larger military formations commanded by Mihailovic. Subsequent research has cast doubt upon the 'facts' that were gathered and reported to the British and American authorities, including the supposedly objective basis that, as Churchill famously expressed it, 'Tito's partisans are killing more Germans'.
Much less well known are the lengths to which the allies were prepared to go to ensure that Tito should consolidate his victory in Yugoslavia at the end of the war. Two episodes stand out. One was the heavy bombardment of several cities where support for Mihailovic's cause was strongest. Belgrade was truck by allied air forces for three consecutive days over Orthodox Easter ( 7th April 1945). The Montenegrian towns of Niksic, Podgorica and Danilovrad were distroyed on St. George's Day (6. May 1945). Fifty American B-29;S flattened Leskovac in Serbia.
The other episode, until recently rumoured but almost entirely undocumented, was the had-over to Tito of 200, 000 Croat troops, in intact military formations. Allegedly these troops were killed or sent on 'death marches' by the Partisans. But after being handed over to Tito in the second week of May 1945 what actually happened? n fact most were enlisted as Partisans - as numerous units that served the Croat Fascist regime of Ante Pavelic previously had been - and they were then directed against Mihailovic's forces in Bosnia and Serbia. This was a task for which, because of the genocidal anti-Serb nature of Croatian Fascism, they were ideally suited.
This immediately altered the balance of power in Yugoslavia. It meant that Tito's weaker forces could outfight the Royalists; and that Tito could dispense with what would otherwise have been his necessary dependence on military assistance from Stalin. In turn, the suppression of Serbian anti=Nazi patriotism - which had been the backbone of resistance against Hitler and Mussolini - allowed the creation of a new post-war Communist myth of fraternity and brotherhood.
Realising his difficult position in the aftermath of the agreements reached at Teheran, Mihailovic in August 1944 made the following prophetic statement:
'More than three years ago I took up arms to fight for democracy against Dictatorship in the form of Nazism and Fascism. In fighting for this cause there were ten occasions on which I almost lost my life. If I must die in fighting against a new form of Dictatorship, I shall die bitter because I have been deserted by those who profess to believe in democracy, but satisfied that I myself have fought bravely and honestly and have refused o compromise my cause.'
Titoism' was an ideology of such profound mendacity that when it eventually collapsed in Yugoslavia that unhappy country was subjected once again to a barbarous civil war, rooted in the ethnic nationalism that had been inflamed and suppressed during the Second World War.
26th April 2004
Circulated for the consideration of the Chiefs of Staff
24th May, 1944.
WAR CABINET - JOINT PLANNING STAFF
Yugoslavia - Supplies for the Serbs
Report by the Joint Planning Staff
In accordance with instructions, we have, in consultation with the Special Operations Executive, examined a minute from the Foreign Secretary on the subject of increasing the size of partisan groups in Serbia owing allegiance to Tito, and the Prime Minister's reply.
2. As illustrated in the sketch map at Appendix, Tito's partisan groups cover most of the area of Yugoslavia except Serbia where the influence of Mihailovitch is still predominant. In Serbia, however, Tito has a steadily increasing following. His Serbian Command, in three main groups, number about 11,000, while his Macedonian Command with a strength of about 2,500 is located in small pockets as shown on the map. These bodies are already active and supplies of arms on a limited scale have already started. They are well placed to interfere with German activities in the Balkans, particularly as regards communications and mineral supplies.
Potential Value of Serbian Effort
3. Two strategically important railways, Belgrade-Nis-Skolje and Belgrade-Kraljevo-Skoplje, run through Serbian territory. The disruption of these railways would be of great strategic value to us under any conditions. In the event of a German withdrawal from Greece and Bulgaria, the importance of these lines of communication would be greatly increased.
4. The best quality chrome and about three-quarters of present German supplies of the metal come from the Skoplje area and Northern Greece. Should resistance in this area be such as to deprive the Germans of these supplies, it would have the very gravest effects on their war production.
C.O.S. (44) 155th Meeting(0)
C.O.S. (44) 412(0)
mid May 1994
Location of Mihailovic and his Chetnics
1. Mihailovic is at present in Dobij in Bosnia with 80,000 to 100,000 of his men. Other Chetnics are located in eastern Bosnia, in Sangiaccato, in Slovenia, in Istra, and in the Gorizia region.
2. Toward to end of April, 3000 Chetnics fought above Fiume and at Kocevie. Others occupied Gorizia where they were well received by the population. According to orders issued by Mihailovic's Supreme Command, these men were oging to cross the Isonzo river and seek refuge in Italy. Tito's bands and troops, however reached the Isonzo at that time and blocked the trasit. The tow fractions started to fight each other until General Breyberg wedged his New Zealaders between them and enabled the Chetnics to take refuge across the Isonzo in territory completely under Allied jurisdiction.
3. At the present, about 15,000 Chetnics are located around Forli and Cesena; they are disarmed but not prisoners. Amog them is the Priest Giuic, who gought in Dalmatia above Knin.
history -82761 - 18.02.2013 : Mihajlo Danilović Majur, Šabac - (1)
New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia)
Newly obtained ages, based on electron spin resonance combined with uranium series isotopic analysis, and infrared/post-infrared luminescence dating, provide a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka for the hominin mandible BH-1 from Mala Balanica cave, Serbia. This confirms it as the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Inferences drawn from the morphology of the mandible BH-1 place it outside currently observed variation of European Homo heidelbergensis. The lack of derived Neandertal traits in BH-1 and its contemporary specimens in Southeast Europe, such as Kocabaş, Vasogliano and Ceprano, coupled with Middle Pleistocene synapomorphies, suggests different evolutionary forces acting in the east of the continent where isolation did not play such an important role during glaciations.
Citation: Rink WJ, Mercier N, Mihailović D, Morley MW, Thompson JW, et al. (2013) New Radiometric Ages for the BH-1 Hominin from Balanica (Serbia): Implications for Understanding the Role of the Balkans in Middle Pleistocene Human Evolution. PLoS ONE 8(2): e54608. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054608
Editor: Fred H. Smith, Illinois State University, United States of America
Received: September 21, 2012; Accepted: December 14, 2012; Published: February 6, 2013
Copyright: © 2013 Rink et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada to WJR and MR (grant numbers not disclosed). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
The Middle Pleistocene has become increasingly recognized as an important period in the biocultural evolution of our lineage. Lebel et al. recognize "exaggerated encephalization, the controlled use of fire, temperate zone geographic dispersals, varieties of prepared core lithic reduction techniques, the development of effective (predatory and defensive) weaponry, and regional differentiation of human populations" among relevant developments Š1Ć. In Europe, the Middle Pleistocene is generally associated with Homo heidelbergensis Š2Ć, a species that was, and continues to be, the subject of substantial controversy regarding its morphology, geographic spread and phylogenetic position (for recent critical overviews see Š3Ć, Š4Ć). Although some consider Homo heidelbergensis as once extending across the Old World Š5Ć, it is more commonly regarded as a European Middle Pleistocene phenomenon, often associated with an early stage in Neandertal evolution Š6Ć. Cartmill and Smith have suggested that the question of H. heidelbergensis taxonomy is not easily solved and advise that we should be referring to these specimens as Heidlebergs Š7Ć, while Stringer Š4Ć recently concluded that questions relating to the phylogenetic position of this species and its differentiation from H. rhodesiensis and other Middle Pleistocene hominins might never be answered since "- these fossils are close to the morphotype expected in the common ancestor of Neanderthals and žmodern- H. sapiens" Š3Ć. As an encephalized, non-specialized hominin, H. heidelbergensis could be ancestral to either or both Neandertals and modern human. However, since all of the European specimens included in the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm present some Neandertal traits, it is commonly considered as a chronospecies Š8Ć, which over time acquired increasingly more specialized Neandertal morphology Š5Ć in the glacial quasi-isolation of Western Europe. It is increasingly evident that the species level might not be the most productive level of discourse when discussing hominin populations in the Middle Pleistocene Š9Ć, Š10Ć. A more appropriate level of comparison relies on the "paleo-deme" or "p-deme" concept Š11Ć that allows us to distinguish between local populations and discuss their possible phyletic relationships without implying (or rejecting) speciation events.
Against this background, every new fossil from the Balkans, where Pleistocene populations were not subject to the same levels of isolation experienced by their western counterparts during glacial periods, could contribute substantially to our understanding of hominin evolution in Europe. A left semi-mandible, BH-1, from Balanica, Serbia Š12Ć, is particularly important as it represents the only Middle Pleistocene hominin specimen from the Central Balkans.
The mandible was excavated at Mala Balanica cave, which together with Velika Balanica forms the Balanica Cave Complex, located in Sićevo Gorge, south Serbia (N43°20.211-, E22°05.115-). This cave complex has been the focus of systematic archaeological excavations since 2004 Š13Ć. Middle Paleolithic artifacts were recovered from the upper levels of both caves and a hominin mandible in the lower stratigraphic level of Mala Balanica, 1.5m below the artifact bearing levels. The excavations are ongoing and bedrock has not been reached in either cave. The detailed characteristics of the sedimentary sequence and details of morphology of the BH-1 mandible are described elsewhere Š12Ć. In this paper we present new ages relevant to the age of the mandible that were obtained by ESR-US and ESR-CSUS dating of tooth enamel, 230Th/234U closed system dating of speleothem carbonate, and infrared/post infrared luminescence dating of cave sediment. We also examine its morphology in the light of an increasing number of Middle Pleistocene hominins in the southeast of the continent.
Materials and Methods
Figure 1 shows the site location and plan of the excavations with the positions of dated samples and the BH-1 mandible, while Figure 2 shows their locations projected onto the northern profile of the excavations. The BH-1 mandible was found at a depth of −281 to −285 cm. in geological layer (GH) 3b (Figure 2). Four enamel samples were dated: MABA 1A, 2A, 5B and 5C (two subsamples of tooth 5). Each were dated using two combined ESR/Uranium Series techniques: US-ESR Š14Ć and CSUS-ESR Š15Ć, each technique employing a different uranium uptake modeling method. These samples were taken from the area surrounding the mandible, but from above it, within layers 3b, 3a/b, and 3a respectively (Figures 1 and 2, Table 1).
Figure 1. Location of the site and the distribution of samples in the cave.
Upper left panel: location of Mala Balanica in southwestern Europe. Right panel: plan of Mala Balanica indicating excavated areas superimposed on the excavation grid square identifiers (D, E, F, 17, 18, 19), and locations of dated teeth, sediment, and speleothem samples, and in-situ gamma measurement locations (GAM). Note position of northern profile here (in blue), which is depicted in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Vertical distribution of the samples on the northern profile.
Northern (southwest-facing) profile as shown in Figure 1. Limestone gravel is shown schematically to represent physical arrangement of the coarse components with the fine-grained sediment matrix (white). Geological layers (GH) are shown (encircled numbers), and the locations of dated sediment, teeth and speleothem samples as a function of depth, except MABA 1A which projects outside the limit of the profile. The speleothem was found in layer 3a as shown here diagrammatically, but the dating sample was recovered from near the eastern profile as shown in Figure 1. GAM means location of gamma spectrometer measurement.
Table 1. Age Results for Dental Enamel, Sediment and Flowstone at Mala Balanica.
MABA SED 1 was also obtained from above the mandible, from the same area within layer 3b. It was dated using the infrared/post infrared (IR/post IR) luminescence dating procedure Š16Ć.
Finally, our uppermost dated sample (STAL 4) is a coarsely-crystalline carbonate flowstone sample from the upper portion of layer 3a. It was dated using closed-system assumption 230Th/234U dating Š17Ć. Sample depths, lithological units (or layers), taxa and depths below datum are given in Table S1.
Basic ESR sample preparation followed Rink et al. Š18Ć. Table S2 reports analytical data used as input values for the software described in Grün Š19Ć that yielded the US-ESR and CSUS-ESR results. Table S3 provides dosimetry results and dose rate results. Sample preparation for isotopic analysis of 230Th/234U ratios and other isotopic measurements were carried out at the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a secondary electron multiplier (see Text S1). Table S4 provides isotopic results from UQAM. The sediment was prepared and dated at the University of Bordeaux following protocols described in Text S1. All necessary permits were obtained for the described field studies. Permission was granted by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Serbia (permission number: 633-00139/2010-03).
Additional details of the ESR, isotopic and infrared stimulated luminescence sample preparation and measurements are found in Text S1. Figures S1 and S2 show dose response data and curve fitting for ESR and infrared/post infrared luminescence (hereafter referred to as IRSL) measurements respectively. In-situ gamma dosimetry was independently performed for ESR dating by WJR and by NM for the IRSL dating, and is discussed in Text S1.
Stratigraphic Context of the Dated Samples
Detailed geoarchaeological analyses of the Balanica sedimentary sequence are currently in progress. However, a preliminary field assessment of the sequence affords some insights into the depositional environments represented in the sequence at Mala Balanica. At the base of the sequence (layer 3c and below), thick (over 1m), bedded fine silt and clay units are present (recorded in an auger hole taken in front of the section), which show that prior to the deposition of layers 3a and 3b the Sićevo Gorge area experienced particularly humid conditions and as a consequence water pooled in this area of the cave close to the bedrock floor.
Overlying layer 3c, the lower part of the excavated sequence (layers 3b -3a) comprises fine-grained silts and sands, with a medium, sub-angular to sub-rounded limestone gravel component. This shows a marked change in depositional environment, from the low-energy regimes represented by the fine-grained sediments of layers 3c and below, to a much more dynamic environment characterised by increasing coarse sediment deposition. Layer 3a is recorded at 200-210 cm b.d. (below datum) in the central part of the cave, whilst near the western wall it is present at 240-260 cm b.d. This suggests that a talus cone which is evidenced in upper layers 2h -2b started to form at this time towards the central area of the site, most likely as a function of climatic deterioration promoting increased cryoclastic activity.
The remains of a laterally extensive speleothem (flowstone) were recorded within the upper part of layer 3a. Speleothem fragments were also found in the central area of the cave, but not near the western wall, possibly suggesting rapid burial and preservation beneath the debris cone. However, excavations in 2010 and 2011 demonstrated that layer 3b was intact all the way to the cave wall. This confirms that following the deposition of layer 3a the interior site dynamics changed markedly.
The upper part of the Pleistocene sedimentary sequence (layers 2h -2b) is dominated by coarse, sub-angular to angular limestone gravel suspended within a matrix of reddened silts and sands. The size and shape of the gravel components are consistent with deposition under a cold climatic regime, and may broadly indicate a climatic downturn following the deposition of layers 3a -3c. Some layers (e.g. 2b) are clast-supported, containing very low quantities of fine material, most likely reflecting particularly active periods of host bedrock attrition. This is borne out by the inclination of bedding planes and imbrication of gravel clasts in layers 2e -2g, confirming deposition at the distal end of a debris cone situated further out in the central area of the cave.
The age of the mandible is best constrained using the US-ESR age of MABA 2A and the sediment sample MABA SED 1, which both occur only slightly higher in the deposit than the mandible (Table 1, Figure 2). Our MABA SED 1 sample at −270 cm yields an age of 449±52 ka (range 397-501 ka), while the US-ESR age of MABA 2A (at −266 cm) is 482+43/−39 ka (range 441-525 ka). Therefore, based on the principle of superposition, and combining the results from MABA 2A and MABA SED 1, we obtain the best minimum age estimate of the underlying mandible to be 397-525 ka. Other dated samples are consistent with this age estimate. MABA 1A at −272 cm has a US-ESR age of 383+70/−63 ka (range 320-446 ka), and a tooth higher in the section at −240 cm yielded two subsample US-ESR ages of 395+59/−56 ka (range 339-454 ka) and 413+54/−52 ka (range 361-467 ka) - MABA 5B and C respectively. Finally a carbonate flowstone fragment located even higher in the deposit at −203 to −216 cm yielded 230Th/234U isotopic ratios consistent with an age range near the limit of the method in calcite speleothems of around 350-600 ka.
The age of the lowest tooth (MABA 1A; 383+70/−63 ka), located slightly above the mandible, is probably an underestimate due to the fact that the gamma spectrometric measurements used in its age determination are likely an overestimate (the tooth came from near bedrock, while the lowest position in which gamma spectrometric measurements could be made in profiles was not as close to bedrock as desired). We therefore reject the US-ESR and CSUS-ESR age estimates for this tooth from further consideration in the interpretation. However, it is still in agreement with the best age estimate on the next higher tooth (MABA 2A) and the sediment IRSL age, which we have used to constrain the minimum age of the mandible at 397-525 ka.
A final consideration for the minimum age of the BH-1 human mandible arises with respect to the results in Table 1 that were obtained using the CSUS-ESR model Š15Ć for the burial age estimates. This model assumes that all of the uranium in the tooth was taken up instantaneously at the time indicated by the apparent closed-system 230Th/234U age of the dental tissues. This yields a true maximum possible burial age because it accounts for a possible delayed uptake of U not accounted for in the parametric functions used in the US-ESR ages that provide for continuous smooth uptake of uranium. In effect, the CSUS-ESR model provides a test of the robustness of the US-ESR ages (Table 1). If CSUS-ESR model ages are generally in agreement with the US-ESR ages, there is good reason to believe they are the best age estimates in a sequence. The best agreement is found for MABA 2A, for which the CSUS-ESR age is 553±49 and the US-ESR age is 482+43/−39 ka. For the MABA 5 subsamples, the CSUS-ESR ages are considerably older than their counterpart US-ESR ages. To summarize the US-ESR dating results, the age of MABA 2A at 443-525 ka is the best minimum age estimate among the three teeth studied here.
We have also considered the possibility that the CSUS-ESR age of MABA 2A constrains the maximum possible age above the BH-1 human mandible to be 553±49 ka. This produces the maximum value of 602 ka, suggesting that the mandible could be older than this age due to its stratigraphically lower position. However, because the CSUS-ESR model involves an extreme assumption that all uranium was taken up at the time of its apparent U-series age (Closed System 230Th/234U Age of Table S4), we do not favor this interpretation.
Considering the age of the MABA SED 1 sediment sample (449±52 ka) does not fully resolve the question of the mandible-s minimum possible age, even though this result is not affected by the uncertainties associated with the uranium uptake modeling. In fact, the sediment age was obtained assuming a fading rate of the measured IRSL signal of 1%, but values up to 2% have been estimated Š16Ć. Using this last value would yield an age of 521±61 ka, and would be considered to be a maximum age for sediment deposition above the mandible. This indicates that BH-1 could be older than 582 ka based on adding the uncertainty of +61 ka to the value of 521ka.
Combining the results for the US-ESR age of MABA 2A and the IRSL age for SED 1, we obtain a minimum age estimate for the BH-1 mandible of 397-582 ka. This incorporates all of the uncertainty in the two IRSL sediment estimates (1% and 2% fading), and because the fading value remains unknown (likely between 1 and 2%), the most conservative approach would be to include the time interval covered by these two possibilities, i.e. 397-582 ka. If we were to exclude the possibility of a fading correction of 2%, this yields an age range of 397 to 525 ka. The 397-582 ka range encompasses all of the uncertainty in the tooth age alone, whose age range is 443-525 ka (US-ESR model). Though the mandible could be as old as 582 ka, we favor an interpretation that the minimum age of the mandible lies between 397 and 525 ka. This interpretation is strongly supported by the US-ESR ages of 395+59/−56 and 413+54/−52 for the overlying samples from tooth MABA 5 (MABA 5B and 5C), that was found about 25 cm higher in the deposit than MABA 2A and MABA SED1. We suggest that others should cite the age of the BH-1 mandible as "BH1 has a minimum age that lies between 397 and 525 ka."
This result of >397-525 ka is significantly older but still consistent with a previous attempt Š12Ć to determine the age of the BH-1 human mandible based on non-destructive gamma spectrometric analysis of the 238U, 234U, and 230Th concentrations in the mandible itself Š12Ć, which resulted in a minimum age of 113+72/−43 ka.
The minimum age range of 397-525 ka places BH-1 mandible firmly among the oldest hominin fossils in Europe. The older estimate overlaps with Sima de los Huesos (600±60) Š20Ć and is only slightly younger than Mauer (609±40) Š21Ć, while the younger minimum age limit of 397 ka overlaps with Arago (435±85) Š22Ć and Visogliano (350-500) Š23Ć, and is somewhat older than Ceprano (353±4) Š24Ć. BH-1 is the easternmost hominin specimen in Europe securely dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Petralona 1 and Apidima 2, the only other Middle Pleistocene specimens from this area, are notably younger: Petralona 1 is dated between 150 ka and 250/350 ka Š25Ć, and Apidima between 105 to 400 ka but more likely towards the upper limit of the date Š26Ć. With the exception of the Visogliano mandible, which is identified as H. erectus Š27Ć, all of the BH-1 penecontemporary specimens are currently identified as H.heidelbergensis, often considered a chronospecies of Neandertal in the European context Š5Ć. Recent advances in radiometric dating of key European Middle Pleistocene specimens, Sima de los Huesos Š20Ć, Mauer Š21Ć, Arago Š22Ć and Ceprano Š24Ć, and detailed publication of the Sima de los Huesos material Š28Ć challenge the notion of gradual progression towards classical Neandertal morphology Š5Ć. Namely, the Sima de los Huesos assemblage shows more pronounced derived Neandertal morphology than the contemporaneous, but more easterly Mauer, or the later Arago or Ceprano specimens, all of which show fewer Neandertal traits. To explain this phenomenon, Dennell et al. Š9Ć examined Middle Pleistocene variability in Europe in the light of geographically and chronologically defined p-demes, and proposed a population model that is based on demographic "sources" and "sinks." The model proposes a small number of core "sources" in the south of the continent that re-populated more northerly areas during interglacials, with northern groups representing demographic "sinks." Relevant for understanding the dynamics of the Balkan Peninsula is the inclusion of Southwest Asia as one of the sources of re-population. With western source populations as bearers of derived Neandertal morphology, attenuation of Neandertal traits in the more easterly or later populations was explained by admixture with a group from outside of the isolated glacial refugee, i.e. a population from Southwest Asia. Under this model, we would expect that Southeast Europe - the Balkan Peninsula - would have remained in contact with Southwest Asia during glacial episodes, or at minimum served as a transit route Š9Ć. This places emphasis on the current fossil record of Southeast Europe that, while comparatively scant, becomes critical for understanding continent-wide processes. While isolation represented the major mechanism of evolutionary change in the West of the continent Š2Ć, causing bottleneck and fixation of derived traits, the Balkan Peninsula did not experience the effects of isolation. Accordingly, the population that inhabited the Balkan Peninsula and maintained contact with Southwest Asia throughout glaciations could have retained a number of primitive (i.e., non-Neandertal) traits, without precluding morphological changes associated with encephalization and tooth reduction observed in Middle Pleistocene populations on all three continents.
On the basis of preserved morphology, BH-1 differs significantly from Middle Pleistocene European hominins generally grouped under H. heidelbergensis Š12Ć. It exhibits primitive features such as a prominent planum alveolare, thick mandibular corpus, wide exomolar sulcus, flat rather than concave sublingual fossa, and poorly defined relief of the submandibular fossa. There is a complete lack of derived Neandertal features: the mental foramen is below the P4 alveolus, equidistant from the alveolar and the basal margins, and there is no retromolar space. Dental traits are equally plesiomorphic: mesotaurdontic roots, two mesial and two distal diverticles on the M1, "Y" fissure pattern, five main cusps, and a well-developed "cusp 7." There is a clear lack of mid-trigonid crest on all three molars, generally considered as a diagnostic feature in Neandertals Š29Ć. Given the size of the mandibular body, the dentition is relatively small, and fits well with Middle Pleistocene European specimens.
Several specimens in close proximity show similar combination of plesiomorphic erectus-like and synapomorphic (Middle Pleistocene trend) morphologies. Similarly to Balanica, the mandible from Visogliano - the closest specimen both temporally and geographically - demonstrates plesiomorphic traits and a complete lack of derived Neandertal morphology Š27Ć, while the associated maxillary dentition is considered remarkably similar to H.erectus from Zhoukoudian Lower Cave Š30Ć. The Ceprano cranium, originally considered to be much older Š31Ć, shows a combination of primitive H. erectus/ergaster features in midsaggital profile - such as fronto-parietal flattening and the development of supraorbital and nuchal structures - combined with synapomorphic frontal bone traits such as widening of the frontal squama Š32Ć. Currently considered to be H. heidelbergensis Š33Ć, the Ceprano cranium fits well with these specimens as it shows either plesiomorphic or synapomorphic features but no derived Neandertal traits. This grouping could tentatively include the Kocabaş specimens from Anatolia Š33Ć. While the calvarium was not directly dated, the travertine layer in the zone of its origin was dated to 1.11±0.11 Ma (Lower Pleistocene) by ESR Š35Ć and to 510±50 ka and 330±30 ka (Middle Pleistocene) by thermoluminescence of the calcite in the travertine (Özkul et al 2004a cited in Š34Ć). Though these techniques remain experimental on these particular materials, there is apparently some other faunal evidence that supports the time attribution to Middle-Lower Pleistocene Š35Ć. Although only a limited number of measurements could be made, the specimen is both metrically and morphologically consistent with Asian H. erectus Š34Ć. The crania from Petralona and Apidima, with their strong Neandertal affinities, especially in the facial region, coupled with the presence of Krapina in the adjoining Western Balkans at 130 ka Š36Ć, could bear evidence of successful eastward spread of Neandertals in the later part of the Middle Pleistocene.
The newly obtained minimum age of 397-525 ka for the BH-1 hominin fossil from Balanica Cave complex, Serbia, makes this specimen at least as old as the central third (from about 350 to 560 ka) of the Middle Pleistocene (130 to 780 ka). It is broadly contemporaneous with other radiometrically dated specimens such as Sima de los Huesos, Mauer, Arago, Ceprano and Visogliano. BH-1 represents one of an increasing number of specimens from the southeast of the continent demonstrating plesiomorphic traits coupled with synapomorphic traits common to Middle Pleistocene hominins (such as encephalization and dental reduction). With a complete lack of derived Neandertal traits, these specimens are distinct from the more westerly penecontemporary hominins. Although the sample size is small, and consists of unassociated crania and mandibles, this pattern is consistent with a lack of isolation during glaciations that resulted in different morphological outcomes from those at the west of the continent. In that context, the Balkan Peninsula could be part of the geographic spread of a Southwest Asian "source" population Š9Ć for the purported successive repopulation of Europe in the Middle Pleistocene.
entertainment -81857 - 23.01.2013 : Vojislav Šešlija Hag - (0)
Why Is Angelina Jolie a Persona Non Grata in Serbia
A mere 12 people attended Angelina Jolie's directorial debut of In the Land of Honey and Blood in the Serbian capital.
A movie based on the romance between a Serbian policeman and a Muslim woman set in the early days of the Bosnian war has been shunned at the movie's premiere in Belgrade. An artistic attempt at the reconciliation of the old Balkan enemies failed the test.
It seems that Angelina Jolie has painfully upset the Balkan ghosts.
While Bosnian Muslims celebrate her as a goddess of the art (5000 people cheered Jolie at premiere of the film in Sarajevo ) the Serbs crucify her on the media cross of shame. They want neither her nor her film.
Overnight, the popular American actress became "persona non grata " in Serbia.
A small Balkan nation still carrying the historical burden of Milosevic's bloody dictatorship considers Angelina a new, albeit small, but very important screw in the Hollywood "anti-Serbian" machinery propagating the Hollywood saga of Serbs as bad guys in the American movies -- guys that shot, killed and raped while others sat innocently waiting to be the victims.
Angelina's one-sided vision of the Bosnian tragedy again puts salt on never fully healed wounds in relations between Serbian Christians and Bosnian Muslims.
Ms. Jolie cried over the cruel fate of Muslim women in Sarajevo's brothels, but shed no tears for any of the Serbian women raped in the 15 registered Bosnian brothels headed by Muslims and Croats. If she had seriously investigated the UN archive that is accessible to her as a United Nations Ambassador of Peace she would have surely found the information in the document marked as A/47/813 S/24991 and dated December 18, 1992.
No tears for the three Serbian daughters of Milan Mitric -- ages 12, 13, 14 -- raped in front of their father by Bosnian Muslim Alija Selimagic. Following this he slaughtered them. Maybe the film would go in another direction if she had watched killer's confession.
Angelina openly admits she could not follow the principle of victims' equality in her movie. Responding to charges that the film was unbalanced she replied:
In seeking an Oscar she willingly accepted participation in a well-known numbers game, quoting the figure of 50, 000 raped Muslim women as crucial inspiration for the movie. If she researched the origin of the information she would find that number was "a creative act" of Newsweek's contributor Tom Post.
According to Sara Flounders of the International Action Center, "Tom Post, a contributor to the article, explained that the estimate of 50, 000 rapes was based on interviews with 28 women."
It was not the only report that falsely accused Serbs of mass raping of Muslim women based on a few testimonies.
The Warburton Report authorized by the European Community estimated 20, 000 Muslim women had been raped as part of a Serb strategy of conquest. Thanks to Simone Veil, a former French minister and president of the European Parliament it was revealed that the estimate of 20, 000 victims was based on interviews with only four victims -- two women and two men."
French reporter Jeromy Bone explained the mechanism of the "mass raping" project:
When I was 50 kilometers from Tuzla, I heard: 'Go to the Tuzla gymnasium, there are 4, 000 raped women. ' At 20 kilometers the figure went down to 400. At 100 kilometer there were no more than 40. And on the spot I found 4 women who agreed to testify.
But Jolie was not obviously interested in reality. It was easiest to "hook up" the information that was rehashed hundreds of times, pointing the finger at the Serbs, the usual suspects, with no attempt to identify and qualify a new side of the truth. She just required a honorific Balkan drama.
Perhaps she was not aware that but she had a great story in her hands. A story of religiously mixed love. A story that is both traditional and cultural in appearances on the multi-ethnic Balkans for centuries. Even today it is not unusual to see a Serb in love with a Muslim woman. New generations are successfully trying to overcome the hatred and pain sowed by their ancestors.
Jolie was supposed to help them in achieving that. Not to judge them for a past that they are not responsible.
She potentially had an excellent artistic story on the reconciliation of Balkan enemies. What better story than to use love to reconcile quarreling parties? What better way to win an Oscar but to tell the story of this tragic love.
Sarajevo still remembers the tragedy of the Bosnian couple Serb Bosko Brkic and Admira Ismić, a Muslim woman, killed by a sniper on March 19, 1993; Bosnian Romeo and Juliet who left an indelible message by their death. A message of eternal love.
Unfortunately, Angelina did not recognize the message. She did not send such a message by her movie. She killed love once again. She raped the truth.
Therefore, she is unwanted in Serbia. That's why she is "persona non grata."
Autor: Saša Milošević
srebrenica_eng -81717 - 18.01.2013 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (1)
Srebrenica, nothing but the lies
The following document contains a vital statistics of the Bosnian town of Srebrenica. The information was sent in 1994 by the Muslim mayor to the Muslim institutions in Sarajevo and Tuzla.
The document states that during the Bosnian war in Srebrenica used to live about 37,000 people. The mayor stressed in the letter that this document should not be made available to the international organizations, which had been falsely informed that Srebrenica has up to 45,000 inhabitants.
During the Bosnian war the Muslim government and the Western media claimed that at least 40,000 people lived in Srebrenica.
This document was presented at The Hague Tribunal, during the trial against Radivoje Miletic and it is a legitimate proof that officials in Srebrenica had been invented up to 8,000 residents of the city.
history -78769 - 04.11.2012 : Mihailo Danilovic Majur, Šabac - (0)
Europe living on the ruins of the Serbian civilization
11th June 2005, Source: "Independent" London - London
Independent "cover fits over the entirepublished article about the discovery of the oldest civilization in Europe. According to the newspaper, that civilization is 2,000 years older than Stonehenge in the UK. It was found that under the fields andcities in Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic and Slovakia has a network of more than 150 huge temples, built 7,000 years ago or 300 years before similar temples in Mesopotamia, the BBC reported. The newspaper says that this discovery will fundamentally change the existing perceptions of the Stone Age in Europe, since up to now considered to be monumental architecture developed in Europe before Mesopotamia and Egypt, the newspaper said."
It is not hard to guess that the oldest civilization - Slavs or Serbs Lusatian, who are still the closest genetic relatives of the Balkan Serbs.
The truth that slowly comes out, and they "civilized Europeans" at any price they want to hide it - that the whole of Europe was created in the ruins an ancient Slavic (Serbian) civilization.
Dresden in Germany, were excavated prehistoric Slavic settlement in downtown, excavated the site 7-8000 years old, who of course belonged to the Slavs (Serbs Lusatian)...
Dresden 8000 - an archaeological journey through time
Dresden celebrates its birthday in 2006. 800 years ago, on this day, the capital of Saxony, was first mentioned in medieval documents. However, its history began long before the first written because people were living in Dresden, in the valley of the river Elbe (Labe) thousands of years. We invite you to discover many unknown details of the past, outside of official documents and familiar images!
The exhibition contains more than 1,000 m² to 1,000 artifacts from the earliest traces of human activity in the Neanderthal period, the first Neolithic villages to baroque. Visitors can expect an exciting journey towards new discoveries.
The early settlers nearly 7,000 years ago, they left behind traces that were found with the Frauenkirche, a ridge along the western valley of the River Elbe (Labe). Here, the district Nickern, archaeologists found in 2003 large circular tomb of Neolithic settlements. At least one of the oldest pottery from Dresden in Saxony-Mockritz - dates from 5500 years BC (before more than 7,500 g.) Particular attention will cause the results of archaeological excavations in the inner city. Since Dresden after severe war damage and the radical urban planning almost completely changed his appearance, tangible evidence of the old urban areas can only be found underground. So, archaeologists have found the foundation walls in the basement of the old building in the heart of the city. The old market, new markets, and on Wall Street and Weber Street, suddenly human buildings from past centuries were visible again. Here you'll find stuff from all areas of daily life, from old centuries and 20 centuries, ceramic tile and children's toys.
Focal point for archeology in recent years the district Frauenkirche. Redevelopment of the village of Neumarkt, has led to the need to have become extensive research. The remains of the former city and houses have been discovered on the Neumarkt.
We also found a cemetery in the Frauenkirche. By the 16th century, the church Sv. Gospe the walls of the city of Dresden had its own cemetery, but later it became a cemetery. This cemetery dates back to before the time of the baroque church Baersch time developed srednjegm century, and even from the time of the Slavs, about 1000 g BC, tombs were found here. These arh. nalazi are older than the later settlement within walls.
The dead were buried without attachments and simply, it was found in the Baroque period, one of the unexpected things, they were buried with dieVerstorbenen citizenship. Gold jewelry, silver crosses and nice clothes adorned the dead. Single women - perhaps even men - wore silver-plated filigree crown, embroidered flowers on the cloth.
The strong impression against the outer fortifications of the enemy, leaving a well-preserved remains of the walls, which were also exhibited at the Neumarkt. The urban expansion in the 16th century walls were removed to ground level only. The walls of the bridge market, along with former Frauentor have survived in the soil. Also, pre-historic fort - the so-called "Barbican" - was visible again. Unfortunately, it is a city underground garage.
The focus of this exhibition are an ancient people and their lives in the city. They have left their mark in the "underground site": town houses and Barbican, tombs, and gold jewelry, castles, stone axes, and the crown of the dead are just some of the others that appear on our show.
srebrenica_man -72768 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (6)LIST OF THE CAMPS FOR SERBS IN SREBRENICA: (320. SREBRENICA, a prison between the buildings of the Municipality Court and the City Hall 321. SREBRENICA, prison of a police station 322. SREBRENICA, village of Potocari, private prison of Oric Naser 323. SREBRENICA, village of Sceska, Zulfo Tursunovic's private prison Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Zeravice and the village of Recice, the municipality of Han Pijesak, August 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On August 2, 1993, soldiers of Muslim armed formations attacked the Serb villages of Recice and Zeravice. In Recice, there were no victims in the civilian population because the villagers had fled before the soldiers' arrival. The soldiers looted and then burnt seven houses with auxiliary buildings. The burnt houses were owned by Dusan and Milovan Golijan, Tomo and Vasa Golijan, Stevan Golijan and his brothers, Rajko Vaskovic, Svetozar Golijan and Milorad Golijan. Muslim soldiers attacked Zeravice the same day and killed: 1. Dobrivoje Golijan, born on April 6, 1926, resident of Zeravice, 2. Rajka Todorovic, born in 1958, who had been mentally ill, 3. Aleksa Golijan, born in 1923, 4. Danica Sokanovic, born in 1926, 5. Milovan Golijan, born in 1967, 6. Marko Mirovic, born in 1923, 7. Jovan Sokanovic, born in 1931, 8. Zora Sokanovic, born in 1936, wife of Jovan Sokanovic. During the attack, Dana Sokanovic, a primary school pupil, sustained a wound in the arm, after which she was captured and taken by Muslim soldiers to Kladanj, together with Golijan Velimir, born in 1946 and Milojka Mirovic, born in 1926. When they occupied the village, the Muslim soldiers plundered and burnt down more than 70 Serb-owned houses and their auxiliary buildings and took away some 200 heads of cattle. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Brajko Huseinovic, of father Hamid, m. Ajsa - maiden name Doljancic, born on October 7, 1959 in Rubnici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, tradesman by profession, employed in TP "Napredak" before the war, permanent residence in Rubinici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 2. Rifet Vrabac, called "Bekan", of father Djulbeg, m. Sema - maiden name Bubic, born on December 1, 1961, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, timber dispatcher by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 3. Rizvo Vrabac, of father Sahbaz, born on November 10, 1953, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, driver by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, permanent residence in Nevacka, 4. Becir Makanic, of father Jakub, m. Cura, born on April 15, 1957, machine technician by profession, permanent residence in Vlasenica, commander of 1st Muslim detachment of Cer, 5. Ismet Vrabac, called "Redzo", of father Djulbeg, m. Sema - maiden name Bubic, born on September 1, 1963 in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, worker by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, 6. Muhamed Vrabac, of father Mujo, born on February 10, 1939, in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, employed in PTT, Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, 7. Resid Imanovic, of father Bajra, born on July 13, 1955 in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, locksmith by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, reserve JNA officer before the war, 8. Zaim Avdagic, of father Himzo, born on May 28, 1946, in Turalici, the municipality of Vlasenica, carpenter by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 9. Zijad Avdagic, of father Himzo, born in 1962 in Turalici, the municipality of Vlasenica, worker by profession, employed in DP "Stupcanica", Olovo, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 10. Galib Durakovic, of father Osman, m. Mevla - maiden name Sanderovic, born on August 12, 1945 in Sasevci, the municipality of Olovo, coachman by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 11. Hajrudin Glasic, of father Began, born on January 5, 1953 in Rubinici, the municipality of Han Pijesak, worker by profession, employed in SIP "Planinsko", Han Pijesak, before the war, permanent residence in Rubinici, 12. Semso Harderbasic, of father Hamid, born on January 24, 1939 in Nevacka, worker by profession, employed in DP "Stupcanica", Olovo, before the war, permanent residence in Nevacka, the municipality of Han Pijesak, 13. Ramiz Camdzic, born in 1938 in Podglavica, the municipality of Kladanj, butcher by profession, permanent residence in Podglavica, the municipality of Kladanj, 14. Alija Mutapcic, born in 1957, in Vlasenica, worker by profession,permanent residence in Vlasenica, the "Bacino Brdo" settlement. EVIDENCE: Records on investigation on the spot, with photo- documentation, medical findings, testimonies by witnesses filed with the Committee under No. 136/95-2. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Potocani, end of May and beginning of June, 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: At the end of May, 1992, most probably on 25 or 26 May, in the village of Potocani, Muslim soldiers in "Green Beret" uniforms, under command of Semin Rustanpasic, killed the following Serbs: 1. Draga Cavic, of father Nedeljko, born in 1933, 2. Milenko Lukic. At the beginning of June, the following persons were also killed in this village: 3. Ljubo Cavic, of father Ljubo, born in 1911, and his wife, 4. Bosa Cavic, of father Aleksa, born in 1924 - slaughtered in front of their house. A big cross was cut into Ljuba's chest. Bosa's throat was cut, both her breasts were cut off, her eyes were gouged out and her ears cut off. Both her arms were cut to the elbows. 5. Jelena Jovic, of father Milan, born in 1928. Her nose, ears and arms were cut off and her eyes were gouged. 6. Mara, from Kupres by birth, was slaughtered. 7. Radojka Prgomelja, of father Stanoje, born in 1944. Her right leg and nose were cut off, her eyes were gouged out and she was cut all over the body. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Semin Rustanpasic, commander of the "Green Berets" unit, 2. Senad Bajric, 3-6. Eric, Corina, Rizvan and Durakovic, "Green Berets" soldiers. EVIDENCE: Testimony by the witness 234/95-13. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. On October 5, 1992, Moslem armed formations attacked the house of Sreten Djokic in the village of Divovici near Bratunac, and two days later the bodies of the people killed in Divovici were handed over to the Serbs. The body of Sreten Djokic was given without the head and the right arm. On the neck hung a patch of skin with hair from the top of his head. The head and the arm have not been found and the body was buried accordingly. Proof: 37/94-6. In an attack on the Serb village of Brezani, the commune of Srebrenica, on June 30, 1992, members of Moslem armed forces killed 19 serb villagers. The body of Milos Novakovic from the hamlet of Cicevac was found with the head cut off. Proof: 493/94-9, 493/94-5, 493/94-6, 493/94-7, 493/94-8 and 635/94-9. Slavko Mladjenovic, (father Ljubomir), born in 1965, was killed on August 8, 1992 during an attack on the village of Jezestice, the commune of Bratunac. He was buried without the head which had been cut off and taken away. Proof: 68/94 and 635/94-28. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. In clashes between Moslem armed forces and those of the Army of the Republic of Srpska on November 5,1992 in the area of Kamenica, the commune of Zvornik, the Moslems captured and killed by beheading Vlado Grabovica, Savo Djokic, Dragomir Bozic, Slavko Tijanic, Savo Kazanovic and Radomir Pavlovic. Dragomir Bozic was massacred his head severed from the body. The head of Slavko Tijanic was found without the eyes, ears and nose, a 6 mm diameter iron bar was found in his chest, while his neck, hands and feet were tied with wire. The head of Savo Kazanovic had also been cut off, his chest pierced with a large nail, and he himself nailed to an oak tree and crucified. A head without the body was also found which is assumed to have belonged to Milos Grabovica. The following were also killed in Kamenica on November 5,1992: Miladin Asceric, 28; Mico Tesic, 24, and Nikola Milinovic, 27. They were also beheaded. Proof: 184/94-5, 184/95-6, 184/95-7 and 184/95-8. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. In an attack carried out on June 3,1992 on the village of Brezane, the commune of Srebrenica, Moslems killed Milivoje Mitrovic and Stanoje Mitrovic. When this village was liberated in April 1993 their headless bodies were found. Stanoje Mitrovic's throat had been slit by one "Kemo" from Pale. Proof: 635/94-9. The Moslems killed the Serb Sredoje Jovanovic from Krnice by beheading him when they attacked this village on July 5, 1992. Proof: 493/94-13. On September 24,1992 Moslem forces occupied the village of Podravanje in the commune of Milici, set it to fire, looted it and killed all the wounded they came across in the village. They killed 19 persons on that occasion and massacred their bodies. Zulfo Tursumovic from Suceska had the severely wounded Tomislav Perendic put his head in his (Tursumovic's) lap and then slaughtered him and cut his head off. Svetozar Jovanovic's head was cut off and impaled on a stake and Gojko Tomic was beheaded and his head thrown some 20 metres away from the body. Proof: 184/95-34. 33. REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL PURSUANT TO SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 1019 (1995) ON VIOLATIONS OF INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW IN THE AREAS OF SREBRENICA, ZEPA, BANJA LUKA AND SANSKI MOST UNITED NATIONS Security Council Distr. GENERAL S/1995/988 27 November 1995 ORIGINAL: ENGLISH 95-37227 (E) 281195/... *9537227* A. Missing persons 4. The Bosnian Serb offensive on Srebrenica from 6 to 11 July 1995 led to a mass displacement of the entire Bosnian Muslim community of the area. An estimated 25,000 people were forcibly evacuated on a convoy of buses and trucks organized by the Bosnian Serb authorities. A group of people, estimated at between 10,000 and 15,000, most of whom were men, left Srebrenica on foot. The exact number of persons from these two groups who arrived safely in Bosnian Government-held territory is not known. By most accounts, the local population prior to the Bosnian Serb offensive numbered 38,000 to 40,000, although UNHCR estimated the population of the enclave for food distribution purposes at 42,600. 5. Thousands of people still remain unaccounted for. An unknown number who made their way to safety have simply not been registered by the appropriate authorities. At least several hundred persons are believed to have been killed in armed combat. There are also accounts of men in hiding in Bosnian Serb-held territory, although no more than a few hundred men are believed to be still at large. 6. It is thus difficult to ascertain the exact numbers of those missing. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has received over 10,000 tracing requests from families and has determined that 2,000 of the requests are duplicative, leaving a total of 8,000 tracing requests. A further analysis by ICRC indicates that 5,000 of the tracing requests concern individuals who are said to have left the enclave before it was taken by Bosnian Serb forces. Some 3,000 requests concern persons who were taken from their families by Bosnian Serb forces during the expulsion itself. 34.Faxsimil of document of Bosnian Muslim Army (BMA) 1.Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ARMY OF R. BiH Defense of Republic The 285.East Bosnian Brigade Zepa Top secret No.08-20-454/95 Date: 19.04.1995. State security Defense of Republic military secret - Top confidential HEADQUARTER OF ARMY DIRECTION FOR TACTICAL HEAD OF DEPARTMENT Asim Dzambasovic Connection with your act, top secret No: 2/628 from 18.04.1995 Requested information we submitting to you: We are submitting you data of military equipment, which arrived;
srebrenica_man -72766 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (5)DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Jelasci, the commune of Visegrad, 1 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In the night of 2 August Moslem military troops attacked the village of Jelasci and shot the following civilians: 1. Milo Savic, born in 1943, of father Gvozden, 2. Petka Savic, born in 1945 of father Dragomir, 3. Radomir Savic, born in 1949, of father Gvozden, 4. Dragan Susnjar, born in 1928, of father Jovan, 5. Slavka Susnjar, born in 1930, 6. Trivun Jelicic, born in 1929, of father Velizar, 7. Sava Jelicic, born in 1920, 8. Mirjana Jelicic, born 1960, of father Miloje, 9. Dragana Jelicic, 8 years old, 10. Vidoje Jelicic, 11 years old. The victims were killed in their homes or leaving their houses. Each of them had several bullet shots on their bodies. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Ahmed Sejdic, from Visegrad, commander of a Moslem military unit. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witnesses filed with the Committee under numbers 440/94-36 and 440/94-40. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Vlahovici, the commune of Visegrad, 9 June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: A group of Moslem soldiers killed the following civilians from the village of Vlahovici on 9 June in a field called Krcevina: 1. Dragomir Simsic, born in 1949, of father Momcilo, 2. Perka Simsic, maiden name Gogic, born in 1941, of father Vitomir, and 3. Bozo Simsic, born in 1932, of father Obren. Dragomir and Perka Simsic were killed by Bajic and Sabanovic from fire arms, and Bozo Simsic was both shot and slaughtered by Hurem. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Hamdo Bajic, from Velika Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, of father Asim and mother Mejrema, 2. Adil Sabanovic, from Mala Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, born on 27 November 1972 in Visegrad, of father Rifet, 3. Ragib Hurem, called Rapce, from Mala Gostilja, the commune of Visegrad, born on 24 September 1960, of father Ragib and mother Hajra. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness and an application of the public security station in Visegrad, Ku. 6/93, filed with the Committee under number 440/94-35. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Donja Lijeska, near Visegrad, 25 October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness Pecikoza was nearby the house of Milka Zecevic when Moslem soldiers who attacked that Serbian village took the fifty year old Milka out of her house and killed her. The witness was about fifty meters away from them. He recognized Maric, Alija Kustura and Zain Kustura. After the murder they burnt her house, as well as the houses of other Serbs from the village. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Osman Maric, from the village of Babica Potok near Visegrad, 2. Alija Kustura, from the village of Okruglo, near Visegrad, 3. Zain Kustura, from the village of Okruglo, near Visegrad. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-29 DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Mesici, the commune of Rogatica, 26 June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On 26 June 1992, Moslem soldiers attacked the Serbian village of Mesici near Rogatica and in the settlement Hidroelektrana they killed Nedjo Gladanac from Mesici, born on 25 August 1922 in Sudici, of father Ostoja. On his body there were several bullet wounds and several knife stabs in the chest and the neck. The next day when the family was burying Gladanac Moslem soldiers came and disturbed the funeral. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Members of the Moslem Army. 2. Minutes from the hearing of the witnesses filed with the Committee under number 440/94-21. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The villages of Klisura and Bursici, the commune of Visegrad, 8 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On 8 August 1992 a Moslem military unit attacked the Serbian villages of Klisura and Bursici near Visegrad, in which there were no Serb troops. In front of the house of Marko Kusmuk Moslem soldiers killed his two sons while he was tending sheep nearby: 1. Milorad Kusmuk, born in 1961 and 2. Milos Kusmuk, born in 1965, and burnt the house in which were: 3. Danica Kusmuk, Marko's wife, born in 1931, of father Dusan and 4. Joka Vukasinovic, Marko's aunt, born in 1914 of father Milos. Danica burnt in the house, and Joka managed to escape the fire, but was shortly afterwards killed by Moslem soldiers. The following persons were also killed: 5. Drago Kusmuk, born in 1954, of father Veso and 6. Zoran Kojic, from the neighbouring village of Adrovici, born in 1965, of father Ljubo. On the same day the following persons were killed in the village of Bursici by Moslem soldiers: 7. Bozana Ircagic, born in 1905, and her daughter 8. Stanojka Ircagic, born in 1933, of father Vojin. After that they burnt Kusmuk's house, two stables, a pigsty, a shed, a cottage and a dairy, and left out 105 sheep and 13 cows, altogether to the value of 700,000 DM. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Dzevad Sisic, born in 1961, in the village of Bogdasici, near Visegrad, of father Ismet, 2. Dzevad Muharemovic, from Medjedja near Visegrad, born in 1961, of father called "Pobro". EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-20. NOTE: Supplement to application I-116. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: The village of Donja Lijeska near Visegrad, late July 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In late July 1992, a group of Moslem soldiers headed by Ramiz Nuhanovic, entered the house of Radojka Rajak, born in 1927, of father Milic Bozovic; Nuhanovic killed Radojka from firearms on the threshold of her house. Radojka had several bullet wounds on her body. After the murder, they burnt the house and all auxiliary facilities (a stable for cows, a pigsty, a barn), altogether to the value of 500,000 DM. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Ramiz Nuhanovic, from the village of Tustamedj near Visegrad. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 440/94-30. NOTE: Supplement to application I-139. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of arrested persons-POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, September-October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After the arrest, Tursumovic cut the witness's chest with a knife, which left a visible scar. After that he was taken to the Srebrenica police for hearing. There they put a pistol into his mouth and Koljevic pulled the trigger, but the bullet was not in the barrel, and only a clicking sound could be heard. Then everybody started beating him, after which they called Dragoljub Kukic for hearing; they hit him against the ground and beat him. Kukic reacted at one point by cursing their Ustashi mother, after which Ahmetovic took a log which was by the stove, and hit Kukic in the chest with it until he died. They threw Kukic's body on a junk yard somewhere near Podravanj. The witness was later beaten with the same log, and Ahmetovic knocked his tooth out. When he was beaten on other occasions they knocked out all his teeth and broke his ribs in 14 places. They put out cigarettes on his legs, which left scars. They urinated into his mouth. They hanged him on the ceiling by tying his legs with a rope hung on a wheel fixed to a strip. As a result of such an inhumane treatment and poor diet, the witness lost 30 kg in 21 days in the prison, and had 62 kg when he left the prison. Naser Oric also participated in the beating of prisoners. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Zulfo Tursumovic, 2. Mirzet Koljevic, head of the police, 3. Kemal Ahmetovic, called "Kemo", 4. "Beli", a guard, 5. Naser Oric, commander of the Moslem army in Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 378/94-14. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of arrested persons-POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Gornji Potocari, the commune of Bratunac, June 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Dragan Mitrovic, a retired miner, born in 1929, from the village of Donji Magasic, was heavily disabled and walked with two walking sticks. On 16 June he tended cattle nearby his house when he was approached by Babajic, Ramic and Ibrahimovic from the village of Glogovo and forcibly taken to the Moslem village of Cizmici and closed in the house of Camil Muratovic. He was beaten. On 25 June Mitrovic's sons were on the hill called "Cuka", in the neighborhood of Cizmici, when they heard Moslems calling them, proposing to negotiate on the exchange of Mitrovic. They wanted to see their father first, and they took him out in front of Camil Muratovic's stable. Mitrovic could hardly walk with the help of a stick; he shouted that he was alive and well. In exchange for Mitrovic they demanded 5 tons of flour or 5 boxes of ammunition, which his sons did not have. Then they shouted to them: "Send your mother Jovanka. We have no one to fuck; we'll give you your father back". Mitrovic's sons felt humiliated and asked in despair their friends to kill their father so that Moslems could not torture and humiliate him any more, but they refused. Mitrovic was taken to the prison in Gornji Potocar, where Beslic, the warden, beat him daily; one day he hit his head against the wall, and when he fell kicked him to death with his boots. His body was thrown into the Potocanska reka (a river), and later taken in a truck in an unknown direction. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Hajro Beslic from Bratunac, prison warden in Gornji Potocar, 2. Ejup Golic, former shipper, from the village of Glogovo, 3. Sabrija Babajic, of father Mehmed, from the village of Glogovo, 4. Murat Ramic, of father Osman, from the village of Glogovo, 6. Camil Muratovic, from Cizmici, 7. Refik Babajic, of father Rama, from Glogovo. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of Mitrovic's son Jovan, filed with the Committee under number 560/94 and the document of the Basic Court in Zvornik Ki. 70/93 filed with the Committee under number 266/1-94. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Inhumane treatment of civilians. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, 1992-February 1994. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness, a 70 year old pensioner, lived with his wife in his family house in Srebrenica where he was born. When a great number of Serbs escaped from Srebrenica, where until the war 1/3 of the population had been Serb, the witness believed that was just a phase, and that life would become normal again. In the end only 21 persons of Serb nationality remained in Srebrenica. Life was difficult for Serbs. They were constantly exposed to various forms of abuse, especially by Moslem refugees who threw stones at Serb houses, demolished them, and often plundered them. Moslem military police searched the witness's house twice. The first time they searched his house they took all food he had, as well as medicines and other valuables. The second time, a police patrol consisting of Hajrus and Safet from Voljevica, searched his house and then came back the same day and took away his clothes, his wife's underwear, stockings, hygienic necessities. The two men continued visiting the witness another 6 evenings. They forced their entry every time by breaking the gate. The witness complained to the military police and commander Krdzic told him that he would "take necessary measures". The witness knew about the killing and maltreatment of other Serbs which is why he was afraid to leave his house during the day, so he went out only in the evening, while his wife had to wear long dresses like Moslem women to hide that she was a Serb. The witness finally left Srebrenica assisted by the Red Cross because he fell ill and required a surgery. In Srebrenica he left behind his real estate, a two- storey house (11x8m), a yard and an orchard. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Atif Krdzic from Osmaca, who was a policeman before the war, commander of the military police in Srebrenica, 2. Hakija Mehovic, commander of the military police in Srebrenica, 3. Hidajet Mustafic, from the surroundings of Skelani, member of the military police, 4-5. Safet and Hajrus, both from Voljevica, near Bratunac, members of the military police. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness of 30 August 1994, filed with the Committee under number 378/94-3. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Inhumane treatment of arrested persons - POWs. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, the prison in the police building, September-October 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The witness was arrested in his house in the village of Podravanje in an attack of the Moslem army and taken to a prison in Srebrenica. He was placed in a cell (2 x 2.5m) in which there were no beds or covers. In fact, there was no furniture in the cell. They could not lie down, because there were six of them in the cell, and guards kept spilling water on the floor, so that they stood or crouched all the time. The witness and other Serbs were beaten every day. The witness was beaten with boots, as a result of which his ribs were broken. This was done by Koljevic whose boots, as it occurred to the witness, were specially intended for beating, since they were strengthened with pointed boot legs, and the witness often lost consciousness after beating. The beating usually started at 10 p.m., and ended at 4 a.m. The witness was also beaten with electric cables, cords, metal pipes. He particularly had a difficult time when they burnt his hands with cigarettes made of walnut leaves. On one occasion Koljevic ordered him to strip naked, and burnt his penis with a cigarette. The witness lost consciousness. Seven of his teeth were knocked out - five in the upper and two in the lower jaw. Apart from Koljevic, he was also beaten by the guards Kemo, Beli and Dule. Guards often clogged the toilet, so that the witness and other prisoners had to put their hand in the opening. Several times they brought women and children from the town to the cell in which the witness was, and they spat on them and insulted them. They were not allowed to take a bath or to wash their faces ever, and when they asked to go to the toilet, it depended on guards whether they would go or not. If they let them go, they had to go out together, and they were beaten by guards in the corridor. This is why they had to avoid going to the toilet. They usually received food twice a day - leftovers from what guards ate. Occasionally they received tea with no sugar and a piece of bread of the size of a cigarette package. As they were not allowed to wash, sometimes they had to take bread with hands on which there were feces from the cleaning of the toilet. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Mirzet Koljevic, head of the police, 2. Naser Oric, commander of the Moslem army in Srebrenica, who beat the witness so hard that his left eye remained damaged as a result of a blow. 3-6. Guards Kemo from Pale near Sarajevo, Beli and Dule from Osmaca near Srebrenica, Cemo from Suceska. EVIDENCE: Minutes from the hearing of the witness filed with the Committee under number 378/94-1. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing and inhuman treatment of the wounded and the sick PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, a prison located between the Town Hall and the Courthouse, January - February 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: During a Moslem attack on Serbs in the village of Kusici, the witness, a student of the second year of high school was on holiday when she received a wound in her left hip while feeding the cattle with her mother. After that they were captured by the Moslems and taken away. But, since she was unable to walk on account of the wound, her mother carried her for two kilometers and then she was loaded on an oxen cart, took to Srebrenica and put into the prison between the Town Hall and the Courthouse. She stayed in the prison from January 16 till February 6, 1993. She lay on a stretcher and was completely unable to move. During the above stated period she had her wound dressed only once and was given a few pills. She was not taken to the hospital, which at the time existed in Srebrenica and was providing services. She and other inmates were given food only once a day consisting of a slice of bread and beans soup. The water was supplied in the least possible quantities depending on the mood the guards. They were not provided with any facilities for washing or taking a bath. Men were imprisoned in the adjacent room wherefrom guards' curses and wailing and howling from the inmates being beaten could frequently be heard. Owing to the effects of the inflicted wound and the untimely medical care, she had to spend four months in a hospital after the exchange and her leg remained shorter by 5 cm. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Zulko Turusovic, the prison commander in Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: The minutes from the hearing of the witness of August 30, 1994 filed with the Committee under No. 378/94-5. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Deliberate killing of prisoners - prisoners of war. PLACE AND TIME: Gornja Kamenica, a village near Zvornik, 24 August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: At about 6 a.m. on August 24, 1992, armed Moslem formations attacked the village of Gornja Kamenica. Most of the inhabitants managed to leave the village, but the following persons stayed behind: 1. Ljubomir Tomic 2. Dragomir Tomic, and 3. Milomir Kukolj, of father Veljko, all from Gornja Kamenica. After the arrest, members of the Moslem armed formations tortured and then killed the three mentioned persons. After the liberation of Gornja Kamenica on October 20, 1992, their bodies were found near a stable which belonged to Bo a Tomic. Their bones were broken, including their skulls, which proves that they were killed. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Esad Mehmedovic, former policeman from the village of Besici, the Milici Commune 2. Meho Suljagic, from Kamenica, the Zvornik Commune 3. Saban Redzic, former inspector of the Commune of Zvornik 4. Edo Haskic from Gornja Kamenica 5. Esad Haskic, from Gornja Kamenica 6. Ahmed Grebic, former policeman from Zvornik 7. Hazir Begic, former policeman from Zvornik 8. Esad Salkic 9. Muhamed Selimovic 10. Meho Suljic EVIDENCE: A document of the Basic Court in Zvornik, No. Kri. 71/93, filed with the Committee under No. 266/1-94 and document 378/94-19-23 including testimonies of B.V.,T.M., K.V., T.M. and K.T. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Willful killing and inhuman treatment of wounded and sick persons. PLACE AND TIME: Srebrenica, hospital, between July 24 and 27, 1993. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Halilovic, as soldier of Moslem Armed formations, shot to death a civilian in the hospital. The civilian was Stojan Krsmanovic, nee 1924, from the village of Rekovac, the municipality of Bratunac. Krsmanovic was placed in the hospital after he had been captured and injured by Moslem armed units of Ejup Golic, when he was on his way home from Jelovac to Rekovac, unarmed. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Emir (Safet) Halilovic, barber by profession, from Srebrenica, born in the village of Budak, the municipality of Srebrenica. EVIDENCE: The documentation filed with the Committee under No. 371/94-1 and in the documents of the Basic Public Prosecutor's Office in Zvornik Kt. 9/94, where the records on autopsy performed by the physician of the out-patient health center in Bratunac are also filed. Some of the war crimes that are reported to the UN and listed by the case and proof number. All Bosnian Muslim units were from Srebrenica's operational Muslim army group. DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Ethnic cleansing. PLACE AND TIME: Medje, a village near Srebrenica, May - August 1992. BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On May 16, 1992 the commander of a Muslim armed formation, Beketic, came to the Serb village of Medje and, promising to the villagers that nothing would happen to them and that they could go on living and working in peace, he seized all their weapons and came again to the village on July 15, 1992 in the company of armed members of his unit and, on that occasion, killed: 1. Cvijetin Gagic, alias "Mato" , of father Srecko, 2. Velimir Simeunovic, of father Petar, 3. Radojka Simeunovic, of husband Velimir, 4. Milojko Gagic, 5. Milovan Gagic, 6. Ljubica Gagic, of husband Milovan, 7. Milena Gagic, of husband Milan, 8. Danica Gagic, of husband Djordje, 9. Milovan Andric, of father Sava, 10. Mladjen Subotic, of father Simeun, 11. Ilinka Subotic, of husband Milisav, 12. Manojlo Subotic, 13. Milena Subotic, wife of Manojlo, 14. Vidoje Subotic, of father Drago, 15. Andja Gagic, wife of Miladin, 16. Petar Gagic, 17. Petrija Andric, and 18. Radivoje Subotic, all from the village of Medja. Individuals were put behind the bars after they were transported by lorries from Medja to Srebrenica where they were locked up in the rooms of the former territorial defence HQs, subjected to torture and abuse, and then slaughtered; their bodies were exchanged on August 13. At the same time, Serb houses in this village were looted, cattle driven away and the houses and auxiliary buildings owned by the following set alight and destroyed: in the hamlet of Karan: Velimir Simeunovic, Mladjen Subotic, Manojlo Subotic, Vidoje Subotic, Milenko SUbotic, Cvijetin Gagic, Djordje Gagic, Milovan Gagic, Dragan gagic, Milenko Gagic,Petar Gagic, Vojislav Andric and Milovan Andric; in the hamlet of Radacevic: Pera Vasic, Ljeposava Vasic, Stanisa Vasic, Stevan Golic, Bo a Golic, Jova Todorovic, Radisav Gligic, Todor Todorovic, Nedja Jovanovic, Milenko Jovanovic, Milan Jovanovic, Jevdja Jovanovic, Zivko Jovanovic, Cvjetin Jovanovic, Draga Jovanovic, Jova Jovanovic, Dragan Jovanovic and Radoje Vasic; in the hamlet of Valtovic: Zivan Trifunovic, Milenko Trifunovic, Vlada Lukic, Steva Lukic, Mara Lukic, Vinka Lukic, Radisav Lukic, Zivko Lukic and Milan Lukic; in the hamlet of Crni Vrh: Radomir Djuric, Vojislav Djuric, Radivoj Jezdic, Krsta Petrovic, Petar Jovicic and Milka Petrovic. INDICATIONS CONCERNING PERPETRATOR: 1. Members of the Muslim armed formations under the command of Ned ad Bektic, former JNA lieutenant, born at Karadzici, commune of Srebrenica to father Rama and mother Zelja, a Muslim. EVIDENCE: Documentation filed with the Committee for Compiling Data on Crimes against Humanity and International Law under No. 371/94-2 and with the Basic Court at Zvornik under No. Ki.78/94.
srebrenica_man -72762 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (4)The Secretary General heavily criticized some media reports: Calling Bosnia Crisis Overrated, U.N. Chief Focuses on Africa By BARBARA CROSSETTE: "....The international press, he remarked in one of several interviews on his trip, made the battle for Srebrenica sound "like Stalingrad." "There is a kind of dialectical relation between the attention of a great power and the power of the media," he said. "It creates a distortion in our work. What I am trying to do, without great success, is to correct this distortion." Finally there were independent witnesses like UN Dutch troops. This is what they said about "mass killings": BBC Ceefax, 23 July 1995 23:59 BST: NO EVIDENCE OF MASS KILLINGS: DUTCH UN . Dutch UN peacekeepers in Srebrenica when the enclave fell to Bosnian Serb troops, have said they saw the summary execution of ten Bosnian Muslims. But Dutch commander Lt-Col Ton Karremans said he and his men had seen no evidence to corroborate reports from fleeing refugees of mass killings by Bosnian Serb troops. DIE WELT, 25.7.1995 By HELMUT HETZEL:".... Neither Struik nor other Dutch soldiers who were stationed in Srebrenica want to publicly confirm what minister of development- help Jan Pronk and later the minister of defense Joris Voorhoeve claimed: That genocide happened in Srebrenica..." The personal representative of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights was appointed to investigate what happened in Srebrenica and this is what he said: The Electronic Telegraph Monday 24 July 1995: SERB ATROCITIES IN SREBRENICA ARE UNPROVED By Tim Butcher in Tuzla: After five days of interviews the United Nations chief investigator into alleged human rights abuses during the fall of Srebrenica has not found any first-hand witnesses of atrocities... ....The lack of clear evidence facing Hubert Wieland, personal representative of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, proved the near-impossibility of establishing what happened when the Serbs overran the Muslim enclave in eastern Bosnia. "Of course the whole ejection of a civilian population is an enormous abuse of human rights," Mr Wieland said yesterday. "But we have not found anyone who saw with their own eyes an atrocity taking place." ...Mr Wieland travelled to Tuzla, the Bosnian city where almost all of the Srebrenica refugees were taken, with a team of investigators to gather evidence of human rights abuses... He said his team had spoken to scores of Muslims at the main refugee camp at Tuzla airfield and at other collective centres but no first-hand witnesses had been found..... There is only one fact proven during the last two years after the Srebrenica story. The "massacre" in Srebrenica was just another masterpiece of the PR campaign done by Bosnian Muslim led government of Alija Izetbegovic. They did't care about sufferings of the people, death or destruction. For these Islamic fanatics only one goal has no price the creation of an Islamic Bosnia and Hercegovina. The Bosnian Serbs and Croats have realized Izetbegoivc's intentions and they fought against it. It is about time for the International Community to accept the reality. There will be no peace until the Bosnian Muslims who are responsible for lightning up the brutal Bosnia's civil war will stand in front of Hag's War Crimes Tribunal. It is time to get Alija Izetbegovic, Ejup Ganic, Rusmir Mahmutcehajic, Omer Behmen, Haris Silajdzic to stand and face the historical judgment. Their blindness (fanaticism) has created enormous disaster to the Bosnian Muslim people as well as for the Bosnian Serbs and Croats. It is time to pay the price for their religious fundamentalism. Bosnian Muslims who were considered by United Nations officials to be missing after the fall of the Srebrenica enclave have made their way through enemy lines to Bosnian Government territory in Zepa. This is an official message from the Zepa command to their main headquarters in town of Tuzla. It was never made public, although UN represenatives were informed about incoming Bosnian Muslim troops from UN battalion in Zepa. 30. Facsimile of Top secret Bosnian Muslim Army document REPUBLIC OF BOSNA I HERZEGOVINA DEFENCE OF THE REPUBLIC Bosnia and Herzegovina Army 22.07.1995 time: 14:20:00 2 CORPUS TUZLA for brigadier: DUDAKOVICH The members of the 28th Bosnian Muslim Mountain Battalion that came to Zepa on July 16, 1995.
srebrenica_man -72760 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (3)Missing List It is said that as many as 6,000 - 8,000 Muslim men were executed by Bosnian Serb forces. However, this figure is evidently inflated. There are several factors that expand the actual figure. First factor is the high ratio of Muslim women to military capable men in a family. In general, the average number of women are about 3 or 4, the grandmother, the mother, the wife, and a sister in a Muslim family, usually consisting of more than 8 members. On the other hand, the number of military capable men is 1 or 2, the father if he is young enough and a brother if he is old enough. Therefore, if one of the military capable men becomes missing, three women anxious about the fate of their beloved one would report to ICRC individually as a missing person. The name could be slightly changed because a nickname is sometimes more popular than the real name. Thus, the number of missing persons would become two-fold. When the author visited Muslim women that were living in Sarajevo as refugees from Srebrenica, more than ten women came in order to ask the author to find the whereabouts of the two men. Another factor is the desperate efforts of Muslim women from Srebrenica to support their lives. Having arrived in Kladanj and Tuzla either by the bus evacuation at the fall of Srebrenica or by some other means before the fall of Srebrenica, Muslim women obtained Identity Card of a citizen of Kladanj or Tuzla. However, as they moved mostly to Sarajevo, they got another Identity Card of Sarajevo. Thus, they are able to secure aid in Kladanj / Tuzla as well as aid in Sarajevo. One of the Muslim women that the author met in Sarajevo whispered secretly, saying that she had two Identity Cards to receive the aid twice. Next factor is the intention of Muslim government to manipulate the election in Srebrenica. According to the document compiled by the local Serbs in Srebrenica, about 3,500 Muslim names registered as voters in 1997 had not been the persons who used to live in Srebrenica. All 3,500 names that the author saw in their letter of complaint to OSCE were female names. False registration gave the election victory of Srebrenica to Muslim government, and gave aid to women registered falsely. All three factors also become the reasons why so many Muslim women said that their beloved ones had been killed in Srebrenica. Moreover, there were a number of names without date of birth in the missing list. These names amount as much as about 3,381 out of 6,610 who became missing at the fall of Srebrenica. Since it is strange that close relative did not know the birth date of their beloved in registering , there must be some factor which tried to manipulate the figure of the victims. Another factor is efforts of Muslim soldiers to conceal their identity in order to avoid the war criminal charge from Bosnian Serb forces. They gave the false identifies to international organizations when they wanted to get out of Srebrenica, and they gave their real name when they arrived at a Muslim territory. Thus, false identities remained in the missing list. In Srebrenica, the author noticed that some of the names on grave stones were identical with the names in the missing list. Probably, they used the names of their dead friends or relatives. According to Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1019 (1995) on Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Areas of Srebrenica, Zepa, Banja Luka and Sanski Most (27 November 1995), out of the first tracing requests from families, which amounted to 10,000, 2,000 were found duplicative, and 5,000 were found to be persons who had left the enclave before the fall of Srebrenica. Thus, the remaining requests amounts to approximately 3,000, and ICRC recently listed 3,290 as persons who became missing on the fall of Srebrenica. However, the author found that 180 tracing requests in the ICRC missing list were also for the persons who had left the enclave before the fall of Srebrenica. Consequently , the number of tracing requests results in 3,110 missing persons. Moreover, almost 1000 out of the 3,110 tracing requests were found to be for the persons who had been dead before the fall of Srebrenica or for the persons who had left the enclave earlier, according to the investigation of the document which Muslim forces left in Srebrenica. It should be noted that this document is 45,000 pages long and that only the Commission of Legal Experts has checked less than forty percent of the document to Republika Srpska. Thus, more persons will be eliminated from the remaining 2,110 tracing requests. If the number of invalid tracing requests is found at this rate by the further check of the document, the number of the valid tracing requests is expected to be 2,000 - 2,500 at most eventually. Out of this number, roughly 1,800 Muslim soldiers are estimated to be killed during combats in fleeing, judging from military perspectives, and probably another 100 persons had died of physical conditions while fleeing. In addition, persons who were given asylum in Yugoslavia and other countries and persons who came back alive much later either after hiding themselves for a long time or after being exchanged as prisoners of war must be deleted from the tracing requests. Moreover, Muslim government immediately transferred about 6,000 soldier who arrived at Zenica and Tuzla to another front line in Bosnia without giving any access to their families . Their families of these 6,000 would request ICRC to trace them because the families did not know that their beloved ones had arrived. Thus, a certain number of soldiers among those 6,000 must be deleted from the names of persons who became missing in Srebrenica. As a consequence, the remaining figure in the missing list would be the number of Muslim soldiers who were executed by Bosnian Serb forces for personal revenge or for simple ignorance of the international law. It would probably stand less than 100. Erdemovic Although Erdemovic (a Croat) appeared to be the only substantial evidence for the alleged systematic ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Serb forces, it has not been well-known that Yugoslav government submitted him to ICTY after it had diagnosed him as being mentally sick. When he confessed in Yugoslavia that he executed more than 70 Muslims by ABC broadcast in May 1996, Yugoslav police immediately arrested him in order to investigate. However, as his statement and behavior had many contradictions, the doctors diagnosed him as mental disease. It should be also noted that he used to fight as a member of Muslim forces, then as a member of Croatian forces, and finally as Bosnian Serb forces during the war . This inconsistency of his military history raises the question of the adequacy to stand as a witness for mass execution. Consequence of Alleged Srebrenica Massacre and Collective Responsibility of Serbs Reappearance of Muslim War Criminals in 1998 In 1997, the local election was held in Srebrenica under the supervision of OSCE, and Muslims won the election. According to the document compiled by the local Serbs in Srebrenica, however, about 3500 Muslim names registered as voters were not the persons who used to live in Srebrenica. Although the local Serbs filed the complaint, OSCE ignored. As a result, the local Serbs decided not to recognize the legitimacy of the Assembly. Meanwhile, some newly elected Muslim assemblymen came to Srebrenica in 1998 in order to attend the assembly under the heavy protection of SFOR. However, local Serbs immediately recognized one of the so-called elected Muslims by face as a criminal that killed two women and a handicapped man in a wheelchair in Loznica village in 1992. When the author visited Srebrenica, one of local Serbs said to himself that he would not be able to live in Srebrenica if the international society would bring back those criminals. The deputy chief of the local Bosnian Serb police, who had to cooperate with SFOR to protect the war criminal, said to the author's interpreter in a despair that his job was to arrest criminals and to protect general people. He added impassively that he might quit the job. Yet, there are almost no jobs in Srebrenica. In Tuzla, a Muslim territory, there are troubles between Muslims who once escaped to Germany from Tuzla during the war and Muslims who started to live in Tuzla after the war. According to UNHCR, the current Muslim residents do not allow their fellow returnees to come back to Tuzla. This conflict may result from the fall of Srebrenica. When Srebrenica fell in July 1995, about 6,000 of the most savage segment of Bosnian Army in Srebrenica took the advantage of the corridor that Mladzic opened, and arrived at Tuzla . According to local media in those days, new comers from Srebrenica were reported to kill and beat up the original residents in order to take their houses. As they are still free to do anything now, they would do anything in order to refuse their fellow Muslim returnees from Germany. In 1998, it is said that Naser Oric is now in Kosovo as a mercenary. As he used to be a policeman in Belgrade, several former colleagues recognized him. In addition, a Kosovo Albanian who was arrested as a fighter of UCK, Kosovo Liberation Army, confessed that Naser Oric was in Kosovo together with about 50 Muslim soldiers from Srebrenica. Unlike international conflicts, civil war often give the opportunities that people like bandits will become main players. If you apply black and white picture on a civil war like the war in Bosnia, and overlook the crimes of those bandits, saying that they are victims, the troubles will spill over and you may increase the sorrow of the general public. Quasi-Protectorate of Republika Srpska Aleged massacre of Muslims gave a dreadful blow to Republika Srpska. It lost political and military leaders as ICTY indicted Karadzid and Mladic, and had to start building the entity without the leadership. Taking the advantage of the situation, the international society have filled the space, using SFOR's arrests as a whip on one hand, and financial aid as a carrot on the other. Under the whip and the carrot, the political body began to disintegrate, and Republika Srpska has become a quasi-protectorate of some foreign country. Domestic judicial system was completely ignored, and a war criminal suspect, Drjeca was killed by SFOR by the "secret indictment" of ICTY the under the name of justice although he had hardly resisted unlike SFOR's statement. People has become very vulnerable, having been exposed to the risk of a sudden arrest for the crimes that they did not know. The air in Republika Srpska became stifling among the general citizens of Bosnian Serbs. When the election was held, IPC declined to release the election results for more than two weeks under the name of democracy. The final results of the election that might be manipulated during this period have brought about war criminals as elected assembly men in Srebrenica, and other places. Being afraid of criminals' comeback to the neighborhood, a certain portion of general citizens of Bosnian Serbs have started to look for a life in other countries. The fate of the entity of Bosnian Serbs is dwindling. Collective Responsibility of Serbs Alleged Srebrenica massacre hit Yugoslavia hard as well as Republika Srpska. As uncomfirmed information on the massacre of Muslim soldiers in Srebrenica created a monstrous image of blood-thirsty Serbs as the collective body so firmly, almost everything has been looked at through the filter of this image. Thus, in almost every case, the Serbs are judged as an evil from the beginning. For instance, in media reports on Kosovo, the most frequent words that have been used are "Serbs cannot repeat the massacre of Bosnia" based in the alleged Srebrenica massacre. This imprinting process of the formidable image might push Serbs onto an isolated corner of the world for an unexpectedly long period. Therefore, to clarify the alleged Srebrenica massacre is considered to be one of the most urgent tasks to save Serbs' fate. Important: There is supporting documentations of this Report. In total there is 40 000 pages of Top Secret Muslims documentation's confiscate during the liberation of Srebrenica. Supporting documentation's include:
srebrenica_man -72759 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia -Political manipulation with term of Genocide (2)25. Normal War Engagement The conditions that were set by UN SC allowed Muslim forces in Srebrenica enclave to do virtually anything. Under the Muslim Command Unit of 8th Operative Group, 28th Division, consisting of 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, etc., launched the attacks on Serbs villages that had been already attacked during 1992 and 1993. Most of the attacks were terroristic action by a small group of soldiers. More than 500 Serbs were killed by the attack form "Safe Area", and the cruelty of killings were the same as before . Dutch battalion later described this attack as follows. "Operations were relatively unpredictable because the units were almost without training and rather non-disciplined. Muslim forces made systematic assaults from the enclave, and afterwards they used to withdrew to the territory under the protection of UN." It is needless to say UNPROFOR as well as civilians were used as human shields. Military supplies were sufficient in "Safe Area," so that there were almost no problem to continue the offensive. The huge documents which Muslim forces left in Srebrenica delineate each delivery of ammunition, military uniforms, boots, computer equipment, office equipment, cigarettes, etc. Furthermore, even money amounting to 308,850 DEM were transferred to Naser Oric, according to the document from Commander Colonel Avdo Palic (dated Feb 14, 1995). More surprisingly, Muslim forces used even helicopters between Headquarters and Srebrenica or Zepa . A series of documents which were exchanged with Headquarters recorded the helicopter accident of 7 May 1995 at Igrisnik between Zepa and Srebrenica, informing 11 deaths and 9 injuries. Taking an advantage of virtually free traffic, US secretly had communication equipment flown to Tuzla, which would enable Muslim forces to coordinate offensive operations between larger units . Thanks to those conditions of "Safe Area", Muslim forces regained the power enough to attack Bosnian Serbs' vital supply route, being well coordinated with other units. Even one month before the fall of Srebrenica, Muslim forces in "Safe Area" were planning to break the road communication around Vlasenica in cooperation with the units of 2nd corps in Sarajevo. Meanwhile, operation of Republika Srpska forces of Bosnian Serbs were generally directed to keep the status quo and to protect Bosnian Serbs population in Srebrenica area from the attacks of Muslim forces in the enclave, or "Safe Area" . As all Muslim enclaves or "Safe Area" including Srebrenica were less important for Serbs, territory wise, Republika Srpska forces did not care very much about the enclaves as long as Muslim forces refrained from attacking Serbs' village and the Serbs' vital supply route. Moreover, Bosnian Serb forces did not have enough soldiers to take over Srebrenica although they had more heavy weapons, which would become ineffective in the mountainous landscape of Srebrenica. Therefore, even when Muslim forces of Srebrenica faced food crisis in spring 1993, the two Bosnian Serb political leaders, Karadzic and Milosevic, were adamant that there was no intention to take Srebrenica. Although Mladic had not been in good terms with Karadzic in those day by his quasi- coup d'etat against Karadzic, he also answered to Kareeman's question on July 21, 1995, after the fall of Srebrenica, that he would not have thought about attacking the enclaves if Muslim soldiers in "Safe Area," such as Srebrenica, Gorazde, and Zepa had been completely disarmed . In addition, on the fall of Srebrenica, Mladic showed his indifference to the territory itself by asking representatives of Muslim refugees and civilians in Srebrenica whether they would like to stay in Srebrenica or go to Muslim territories or foreign countries. What Bosnian Serb forces wanted from Muslim forces was to stop the assaults against Serbian civilians and their vital supply route. 26. Fall of Srebrenica - Chaotic Muslim Soldiers When Srebrenica began to fall into the hands of Serbs from July 6, 1995, Muslim forces in Srebrenica were hysterical, being in confusion and chaos. Having seen Dutch Battalion of UNPROFOR withdrawing, Muslim forces together with three citizens shot a blue helmet, Sergeant Van Renseen, to death on July 8. On the same day, some Muslim soldiers threw grenade at Dutch Battalion, demanding the Dutch to go towards Bosnian Serb forces and fight. On July 9, Muslim soldiers who did not allow Dutch to withdraw held another Dutch battalion for overnight . On July 10, Muslim troops threatened a Dutch captain with anti-tank weapons not to move although the Dutch captain wanted to move in order to target Bosnian Serb forces more directly . On July 11, Dutch solders saw mutual fighting in various places between Muslim soldiers who wanted to surrender and Muslim soldiers who wanted to continue to fight . On July 12, several Dutch soldiers saw a man hang himself in factory complex opposite of the Dutch base in Potocari. Negotiation With Muslim Civilians & Refugees in Srebrenica Enclave At the fall of Srebrenica, Mladic negotiated with Karremans, Dutch commander, and three representatives of Muslim civilians and refugees three times. Based on the decision of the three representatives including a woman, Mladic organized the evacuation of people, and asked for the help of the three representatives to carry out the evacuation smoothly. What he repeatedly told them was to ask soldiers to give up weapons within 24 hours. He said that Muslim soldiers, including soldiers not in uniform and even war criminals, would be treated according to the Geneva Convention if they hand over their weapons. Muslim Soldiers Who Did Not Surrender The conclusion of this negotiation must have been a nightmare for Muslim forces that were in confusion. Most of the soldiers were occupied with the worst scenario in which Bosnian Serb forces would execute all men. Later, some of the Muslim soldiers who had fled admitted, in various magazines, that the reason they had decided to flee was due to this worst scenario. Besides, Muslim hard liners' pressure was mounting so high that soldiers that had decided to surrender had to expect some assaults from their own fellows . At the night of July 10, the Muslim soldiers who had decided not to surrender started fleeing. According to Dutch Battalion, a group of some 300 soldiers of Muslim forces disappeared in moving toward the west. On the night of July 11-12, between 10,000 and 15,000 men, who had converged on the area of Jaglici and Susnjari, went in the forests to reach Tuzla or Kladanj. Mehrudin Mesanovic said in the local magazine of Sarajevo that brigades gathered in Buljim on July 11 started into woods by platoon and platoon. Although no confirmed figures are available, it is estimated that 10,000-15,000 Muslim soldiers had left Srebrenica through woods according to the Report of the Secretary-General and other accounts . Muslim Who Surrendered Approximately 25,000 out of 40,000 Muslims decided to surrender and gathered in Potocari. According to Dutch battalion, the majority of people were women, children, and the elderly, and the military capable men accounted for only 2% to 3%. Bosnian Serb forces separated them into a group of women, children, and the elderly and a group of military capable men. The purpose of this separation was two-fold: to catch Muslim soldiers as many as possible as war prisoners in order to exchange them for Serbs imprisoned by Muslim Army particularly in Sarajevo, and to screen out Muslims who had committed hideous crimes against Serbian citizens particularly in 1992 and 1993. Being free from allegation of military engagement, a group of women, children, and the elderly were directly transferred to Kladanj, a Muslim territory. On the other hand, a group of men, amounting to about 500 to 750 (or 2%-3% of 25,000), were transferred to Bratunac, where they were screened for the check of war crimes, and were grouped into three; (1) a group of men who did not have any criminal records, (2) a group of men who were required to go through farther check for war crimes, (3) a group of men who were determined to be war criminals. As for (1), Bosnian Serb forces considered the men of this group as civilians but not as prisoners of war. Thus, they were transferred from Bratunac to Kladanj, a Muslim territory, on July 14, immediately after the criminal screening. The fact that the men in this group did not become the targets for the exchange of prisoners was noteworthy because the men in this group might have fought as soldiers. In fact, a Muslim man that had been released as a civilian on this time in Bratunac disappointed Bosnian Serb forces later when he was caught as a prisoner of war on the front line near Sarajevo . The number of Muslim men in this group is estimated to be around 500 because six buses and four trucks are said to be used to transport them . The Muslim men in the remaining two groups became prisoners of war, according to their war activities. As for (2), the group was transferred from the prison of Bratunac to the prison of Batkovic. As for (3), the group was sent from the prison of Bratunac to the prison of Zvornik. The number of Muslim men in these two groups is estimated to be less than 250 in total because the number of men in all three groups totaled 500 to 750, and the group (1) consisted of approximately 500 men. When ICRC visited all three prisons in Bratunac, Batkovic and Zvornik afterwards , it registered 164 persons from Srebrenica at the prison of Batkovic on July 26, 1995 , and noted 193 persons from Srebrenica in total by November 1995 . Later, the majority of the Muslim war prisoners in these groups seems to have been exchanged for the Serbian war prisoners via ICRC. One of the example is Ibran Mustafic, a founder of the ruling Muslim party (SDA) in Srebrenica and Srebrenica representative to Muslim Parliament . He was exchanged for a Serb imprisoned by Muslim Army after having spent nine months in the prison in Batkovic although Mustafic was on the list of war criminals of Bosnian Serbs side . Unfortunately, the number of the persons who were exchanged from the group (2) and (3) is unknown due to the confidentiality of ICRC documents. Yet, taking into consideration the fact that about 500 out of 750 men gathering in Potocari were transferred to Kladanj unconditionally, the remaining 250 must have been very precious war prisoners for Bosnian Serb forces. Other than the above three groups, there was a group of 88 wounded persons . As for the evacuation of this group, ICRC said that 65 of them were transferred to Muslim territories on July 17 and 18 . Although 23 remained, ICRC noted their identities to trace them as war prisoners afterwards . As ICRC's check of identities would secure the lives of the noted persons, almost all wounded persons are considered to be exchanged for Serbian war prisoners later. Other than ICRC report, there were two accounts that contradict each other: the statement of Medicina Sans Frontiers and the statement of Dutch battalions . Taking into consideration that the statement of Medicina Sans Frontiers was also inconsistent with ICRC report and that the statement was given by the locals that Medicina Sans Frontiers employed from the enclave, their statement should not be taken seriously. 27. Alleged Massacre - Fleeing Muslim Soldiers It is said that the dreadful massacre of Muslims occurred at the fall of Srebrenica. Particularly, Muslim soldiers who decided to flee through woods instead of surrendering are said to be executed by Bosnian Serb forces as if they had been hunting rabbits. However, two important facts were ignored in this understanding: those soldiers were carrying weapons in spite of Mladic's repeated warning, and there were ferocious fighting between those Muslim soldiers and Bosnian Serb soldiers. As all Muslim soldiers headed for Muslim territories, Tuzla or Kladanj, through woods, they had to cross roads that cut off the woods vertically from north to south in some points, such as Buljim, Kamenica, Kravica, Pobudje, Nova Kasava, Bajkovica, Crni Vrh, and the line from Konjevic Polje to Milici . The combats were very intense in these places. According to a Muslim survivor, Bosnian Serb forces were waiting along the path which Muslim soldiers had to cross, and did not dare to walk into the woods . As Bosnian Serb forces were carrying anti-aircraft weapons, what they had to do was just to wait and shoot at massive Muslim soldiers coming out of the woods if they do not obey the warning of surrender . Yet, Bosnian Serb forces lost the fight at several places, such as Baljkovica, Krizevac, etc. and suffered the loss of 300 - 500 soldiers because Bosnian Serb soldiers, being inferior in number , could not fight with hundreds or thousands of Muslim soldiers that crossed roads at a time even by heavy artillery. Among the loss of Bosnian Serb forces, there were quite a few elite soldiers, and local newspapers of Serbia often carried sad stories of those soldiers together with their photos in those days . Taking into consideration the huge loss of Bosnian Serb forces under the favorable conditions for them , it can be estimated that Muslim forces must have suffered the loss of nearly 2,000 soldiers from military perspectives. However, it must be noted that this combat might look mass killings to the eye of frightened Muslim soldiers although they carried weapons and shot at Bosnian Serb soldiers randamly . There are some accounts that said that no combats occurred virtually . The reason for these accounts was that the women in the buses heading for Kladanj did not see fighting . However, Mladic told General Smith, on July 19, that he had opened the corridor towards Tuzla for Muslim soldiers who had left the enclave around July 10 and 11. Thus, Bosnian Serb forces did not put up serious opposition . Under these conditions, about 6,000 soldiers were able to reach Zenica through woods, according to UNHCR's announce . As Halilovic confirmed proudly in his book, hence, the 28th Division of Muslim Army in Srebrenica had been reorganized, consisting of 6,000 soldiers that had broke the line of Bosnian Serb forces . Therefore, during the daytime of July 12 and 13, when all buses passed by, there had not been serious combats yet. Otherwise, the buses could not have passed. However, during nights, when Muslim soldiers were moving, there were combats. Most of the local pathways became war sites as well as some places on the main roads that the buses took. Therefore, there must have been shooting sounds, which Dutch soldiers heard particularly during nights, and there must have been dead bodies scattered around the roads as the women in the buses saw during daytime. Accordingly, what the women in the buses said was rational, and it was the evidence of the combats during nights rather than the evidence of the absence of the combats. In addition to the death tolls in the combat, there were a number of Muslim soldiers who lost physical power to continue to flee. Dr. Ilijas Pilav, who succeeded this journey, said that he noticed many drowned men when he crossed the Jadar River . He added that there were mutual shootings because of illusions resulted from exhaustion . Another person said that there must have been lots of people who lost lives after losing sense of directions and going into a circle walk . After the combats, a huge number of dead bodies were scattered around. To walk for almost 20 days in the area which might be full of mines without any food and water under the fear of being shot from any directions was such a trauma that Muslim soldiers sometimes mixed reality with illusions . Having looked at dead bodies under the psychological disturbance, some Muslim soldiers could believe what they imagined. Therefore, it is necessary to confirm witness's accounts by site-inspection. Otherwise, enormously hideous stories, such as 'liver-eating story shown in the review of the indictment against Karadzic and Mladzic, would drive the general psychology to a 'witch-hunting' frenzy. Muslims that were transferred by bus As for the group of women, children, and the elderly, they were transferred to Kladanj, a Muslim territory, by buses on July 12 and 13. According to Muslim women that were transferred from Srebrenica by bus, the Serb bus drivers assured that they would protect the passengers and that nobody would touch them. In fact, there are almost no names of women from Srebrenica in the missing list of ICRC. As for the group of men who were transferred to Kladanj, several persons said that they were transferred to Karakaj in Bosnian Serbs' territory instead of Kladanj in Muslims' territory although others appeared to be transferred directly to Kladanj without troubles. According the Karakaj-massacre witnesses, men were crammed into a school complex and its adjacent sports hall in Karakaj and thousands of men were executed there. However, according to the author's site inspection, there was only one school in Karakaj, which was supposed to accommodate Muslim men. However, it was too small to accommodate them and it did not have any sports halls. Moreover, there were school records showing the presence of students day by day in July and in August. In addition, when the author met two Muslim women that had been living in Mali Zvornik (in Serbia), only about 1 km away from the school across the Drina River, they said that they didn't hear any shooting sounds from 13 July afterwards although they lived within the range that the sounds could reach. They just added that they saw a long column of the buses, carrying many Muslims. Judging from this site-inspection, and considering that Mevludin Oric, one of the witnesses who allegedly saw massacre there, was a nephew of Naser Oric, Commander of Muslim forces in Srebrenica, the story of massacre in Karakaj is very skeptical. Another dubious story is regarding the whereabouts of one of the most important Muslim citizens for Bosnian Serb forces. Nesib Mandzic, a citizen that negotiated with Mladzic as a representative of refugees together with two other civilians, is said to be executed by Bosnian Serb forces and listed as a person who disappeared on July 13. However, he signed the paper with the other representatives to confirm the safe completion of the evacuation on July 16, three days after the alleged disappearance. It can be considered that he might be killed later by Muslim soldiers partly because he was one of the persons that Muslim Army must have hated due to the negotiation with Mladzic and partly because he was a refugee but not a citizen of Srebrenica town. Summary Execution for Personal Revenge Considering that a number of Serbs were killed by Muslim neighbors in a very cruel way in 1992 and 1993, there must have been summary executions for the purpose of personal revenge. According to De Groene Amsterdammer dated March 13, 1996, Serbs were so tense to select war criminals with the lists and photos in their hands when they separated military capable men from women and others. Therefore, very selective executions could happen. Regarding the spots where executions took place, most cases must have been limited to Potocari because a particular individual would rarely see the right person among 15,000 fleeing Muslim soldiers in places other than Potocari. Moreover, any person that became insane with revenge would usually kill his target on the spot, i.e. Potocari, rather than waiting for the appropriate time and place. Direct information, such as Dutch soldiers, was one of the examples of summary executions for personal revenge. For instance, according to a Dutch soldier, a Muslim was pulled out of a crowd of refugees and shot in Potocari on July 13. Another Dutch soldier saw 10 Muslim soldiers led by Bosnian Serb soldiers on July 12, and 9 dead bodies were found around the area where they were seen last in Potocari. Yet, it must be noted that just shooting sounds or collecting people in one spot does not necessarily mean killings as shooting sound could be considered to be a threat or a warning and people could be collected in a place for screening for war crimes. The existence of Mladzic in Potocari can be considered to discourage Serbs to take their wild revenge, taking into consideration the vengeful mind of the relatives of Serbian victims that were massacred in 1992 and 1993. Several old Serbs whom the author met in January of 1998 said that they personally saw how merciless Mladzic whacked Serbs who tried to rob empty houses. It was said that Mladzic was too harsh and strict in discipline to overlook any unlawful behaviors of his soldiers. Although these were the statements of Serbs, it must be remembered that the existence of Mladzic does not necessarily mean the systematic killings and could be the deterrence to revengeful killings. Of course, however, Mladzic, who failed to stop killings perfectly, would be responsible as a superior, and those Serbs who directly committed the crimes should be punished accordingly. Summary Execution of Muslim Soldiers Who Were Captured in Fleeing through Woods It is not difficult to distinguish Muslim soldiers that were executed after being captured from Muslim soldiers that were killed in combat. The location of mass graves holds the key. The two of the three exhumation sites that author visited on May 16 in 1996 showed good examples: Cancari and Glodjansko brdo. Both of them are located in the front line area in Kamenica. Cancari is the small village on the way from Srebrenica toward the north-east, the direction of Muslim territories. The mass grave in Cancari was situated along the two local roads. Behind the mass grave, six families were living at the time of exhumation. Bones were mixed up, and the locations of the bones were not natural. Therefore, ICTY, who was working on this mass grave, presumed that they were moved from somewhere to here in order to hide. However, the circumstances were not so convincing. Firstly, the site was so close to local roads that it was not an appropriate place to hide something. Secondly, if a truck picks up dead bodies who were killed in combats for clean-up, the locations of bones were disarranged anyway. Lastly, according to a ICTY officer, this site was shown by one of the US satellite photos, which could be any graves not necessarily for summarily executed persons. Mass graves does not always mean mass execution. A village man in Cancari area began to grumble to the author about his corns, saying that his corn field was stamped so hard by massive Muslims during nights that he could not harvest corn. According to him, the combats had been so ferocious that bodies of soldiers killed in the combats had scattered around the area, and the whole area had smelled terribly as it had been more than 30 degrees. As domestic animals had eaten some of internal organs of dead human bodies, villagers had to kill all of their domestic animals. Under these circumstances, someone had to pick up the bodies to put into the ground for the sake of hygiene. On the other hand, the mass grave in Glodjansko brdo was located deep in forests. It was the site where someone wanted to hide bodies. This mass grave had been once dug in 1993 by Bosnian Serbs because it had contained victims of Serbian civilians killed in 1993. However, the exhumation work had been suspended due to the fierce combats. Most of local newspapers had carried the exhumation as top stories in those days. Comparing the two sites, it can be concluded that the mass grave in a open space along a road in combat areas were created for hygiene reasons for numerous soldiers killed in the combats. On the other hand, mass graves deep in forests are considered to be the ones which criminals wanted to hide. The exhumation site of ICTY is considered to be one of the examples of mass graves created for hygiene reasons.
srebrenica_man -72758 - 14.08.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (1)
Ethnic Conflicts in Civil War in Bosnia - Political manipulation with term of Genocide (1)Part II (Practical work) Case Study: Srebrenica
eng_srebr_dups -72645 - 11.08.2012 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (2)
Dossier Srebrenica: How Many Bosnian Moslems were Killed in Srebrenica?
Author: Zeljko Tomic, free to copy and distribute
It has been seventeen years since the small Moslem enclave, Srebrenica, had fallen into Serbian hands. Since that time, a lot has been written in the Western medias about the war in Bosnia, especially about fall of Srebrenica.
This is what Wikipedia say about Srebrenica:
"The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide, refers to the July 1995 killing, during the Bosnian War, of more than 8, 000 Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by units of the Army of Republic of Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladic. The mass murder was described by the Secretary-General of the United Nations as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War. "
It is now clear Srebrenica was a part of a territorial exchange between Moslims and Serbs in the final phase of the war. The Moslem president, Alija Izetbegovic, was eager to gain control over prosperous Sarajevo valley, which was mainly controlled and populated by Serbs. This includes municipalities of Grbavica, Ilidza, Vogosca, Ilijas, Rajlovac and Hadzici. For that reason, Izetbegović offered to Karadzic Srebrenica, a small mining town with population of 20, 000 inhebitans, for an exchange.
Long after the war, it became clear that Srebrenica was a hoax for Serbian people. In order to understand that, lets review the chronology of events which have happened for the last 60 years.
Before the World War II, the Srebrenica municipality accounted 50. 6% Serbs out of 36. 000 inhabitants. However, because of the atrocities of the German Nazi collaborators a. k. a. Moslem Ustashi, the Serbian population after WWII declined to 35, 6 percent in 1991. On the top of that, a thousands of Serbian civilians from other parts of Bosnia were killed in that area during WW2. For example, in spring 1942, estimated 20. 000 Serbian refugees from Eastern Bosnia were slaughtered on Drina river banks, near village of Milosevici. Over 6000 Serbs were killed in a single day! My own mother was in that croud which was desperately trying to cross the raging river in order to find a refuge on the other side, which is now the Republic of Serbia. Miraculously, she survived the massacre.
The WW2 wounds had not been healed yet, when another war broke up in 1992. Since Srebrenica was surrounded by predominantly Serbian territories, the UN had no other option but to declare Srebrenica as a protected enclave. According to the agreement, the Moslem army was suppose to surrender their arms, in exchange for Serbs never to attack the city. However, the Moslem army, led by Naser Oric, performed a numerous guerilla raids which resulted in destruction of over 50 Serbian villages in 1992 and 1993. Heavy fighting continued in the area for the rest of the war, until July 1995. Whan the war ended, the Bosnian Serbs from the area had 3267 casualties out of which is 631 members of The Serbian Army.
The point I am trying to make here is that Alija Izetbegovic was fully aware what was going to happen whan a pack of Serbian vigilantes enter the town. Still, for some strange reasons, he accepted and even helped Serbs to enter Srebrenica. This statement is based on the fact that he pulled out from the enclave his chief commander Naser Oric and 40 other high ranked officers. According to the official Bosnian government statement, those officers were recalled for some "military training" in city of Zenica. In addition to this, when Serbian Army tried to enter the city, Bosnian Moslem Army didn't lanch any attack on Serbian positions around Sarajevo, which was a standard practice during the war in order to reduce military pressure on critical frontlines.
Srebrenica was conquered by Serbs without any resistance! No casualties within UN peacekeepers as well, except one who was killed by a Moslem man.
Soon after Serbs conquered Srebrenica, it became clear that entire event was staged in order to produce some negative publicity against Bosnian Serbs. After this incident, all Western powers became united in taking military actions against Bosnian Serbs, so the NATO bombing of Bosnian Serb military positions started in August 1995. On the top of that, Bosnian Serbs were accused for using biological weapons during the attack on Srebrenica, and digging mass graves to bury killed Moslems... Later all those accusations will turn out to be false, or exaggerated.
At the present time, most experts on Srebrenica would agree on everything I wrote so far. The only burning question is how many people are really killed in Srebrenica during the month of July 1995?
It is very interesting to mention that no significant effort was made to answer this question. At one occasion, the Government of Republic of Srpska, tried to do so. The attempt was made as a part of a project funded by the Bosnian Government. However, there were several issues with this project. First of all, the budget was very modest. Furthermore, the deadline was unrealistic because the committee got only a couple of months to complete the report.
As a result of their work, the committee prepared "The Srebrenica Report", which was assembled poorly and immediately started to raise objections. Still, the committee did a significant amount of work. They started with 150. 000 names, received from several, mainly unreliable sources. For example, anybody from the world, could sabmit a name to the database. The only job the committee has done was to compile all lists into a single one, the master list, which on the end reduced number of killed to 7108. This today widely accepted number of casualties in the July 1995 massacre.
Please note: the committee never made any effort to establish identity of each individual person of the list, like background checking of the Social Security Numbers, getting birth certificate, checking up on the withnesses, etc. This kind of job was simply beyond their mandate.
For the last ten years, the list of individuals killed in the Srebrenica Massacre has been kept as a top secret. It was very difficult to find it. If you search the Internet, you will find only a few resources referring to the report.
I feel obligated to mention that I started with a list consisting of 7331 names, which is the second last report from the Sebian Government. They removed some duplicates from it, so that is the reason why I got more names in my database. Since I consider myself an IT expert, especially regarding databases, web applications, data mining and survey processing, I decided to spend some time on analysing the data. The results I got are very surprising. I have the following issues with the report:
Issue No. 1: Bosnian Serbs Accused for Genocide Due to Somebody else's Spelling Errors
After loading data into a database, I made a simple program which allows me to sort names by various criteria: first name, last name, father's name, date of birth, village and municipality... I it took me a day of work to flag duplicates, with some help of my program which uses a special coloring system to mark records for duplicates. The occurrence of individuals with identical first, last and the father's names are surprisingly high; still I didn't want to declare any of them as a duplicate unless the mothers ( or spouse's ) name match two entries in the database. In spite of applying a very cautious strategy, I have identified 589 duplicates out of 7331 records I have in the database. The number is not final, since I consider this job as a work in progress.
Here is my report regarding the duplicates. If you don't see the report, please click HERE.
prosecutions -72080 - 28.07.2012 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit,USA - (0)
Struggle of Serbian Civilians in Moslim Sarajevo
Local Justice - Sarajevo: Presentation of Evidences of the Prosecution Completed
At the trial of Ibrahim Ceco, indicted for war crimes committed in Dobrinja in 1992, Sarajevo's Cantonal Prosecutor's Office completed its presentation of evidences.
Slobodan Vucicevic, the witness of Sarajevo's Canton Prosecutor¿s Office, said that the indictee, after ordering him and other three men to lie on the floor, kicked him with military boots, and thus fractured him three ribs.
"Ibro ordered us to lie down, and when we did it, I saw that he hit me with military boots. I was getting a little bit lost. It lasted minimally 10 to 15 minutes. I felt pain to some extent, afterwards someone could kill me and I would not feel anything', said Vucicevic.
The witness said that he and three other persons were taken to the basement of the premises of the Local Community (MZ) in Dobrinja, where he was beaten by the indictee on September 18, 1992, just few hours after one man who dug a trench with them in Dobrinja 5 escaped.
The Witness said he was taken from MZ to prison Sunce.
"They transferred us to prison Sunce, a former food store. In prison, no one touched us. There were dozen persons inside, who were brought there before. We were released on September 20, and I immediately went to the military hospital in Dobrinja. They examined me there and found out that I broke three ribs. They did not propose me to stay in the hospital because it was full", said Vucicevic, pointing out that he felt terrible pains then.
The witness said that he knew who Ceco was from before because some civilians told him that he could be violent and that one should beware of him, and that he closely saw him for the first time on September 18, 1992.
"I hold Ibro Ceco liable for sustained injurues", said Vucicevic.
The indictment filed by the Sarajevo Cantonal Prosecution alleges that Ibrahim Ceco, former member of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Armija muslimanske BiH, physically abused Serb civilians, while they were digging trenches at a locality in Dobrinja 5 on September 18, 1992.
The Prosecution alleges that indictee Ceco slapped and hit two civilians on their heads and other body parts and took them, in collaboration with soldiers nicknamed "Seki" and "Zoka", to a basement of a building in Dobrinja, where they ordered them to lie down and continued abusing them.
"Ceco hit S. V. several times with his boots to the chest, after which the civilian lost consciousness. Ceco broke several ribs of his ribs during the abuse", states the Cantonal Prosecution in the indictment.
"Ceco hit injured party S. V. on his chest several times by kicking him, while wearing his military boots. The injured party lost conscience and received severe bodily injures, like fractures of a few ribs, - the Sarajevo Cantonal Prosecution's indictment alleges.
Hamza Zujo, a medical expert witness, prepared the findings and the opinion regarding serious physical injuries sustained by the injured party. He prepared it on the basis on medical records from the military hospital in Dobrinja, where Vucicevic was examined.
"Fractures of the sixth, seventh and eighth ribs are serious injuries, while many contusions on the body are minor injuries. Injuries may have occurred from some mechanical instrument, but it cannot be excluded that they were caused by the shoe", said Zujo.
Answering the questions of the Defense, the expert Zujo said that he does not exclude the possibility that the broken ribs could occur by falling on edge of the tub.
At this trial, prosecutor Aida Catovic entered several material evidences into file including the findings and opinion of the expert.
Indictee Ceco defends himself from liberty.
The continuation of the trial is scheduled for April 27 this year, when the Defence plans to present the proposal of its evidences.
bih_alkaida -71597 - 12.07.2012 : Pozz - (1)
Bosnia Connection: Bill Clinton and Islamist ratlines in Bosnia assisted September 11Murad Makhmudov and Lee Jay Walker
Source: Modern Tokyo Times
Osama bin Laden wasn't articulate and media savvy like Bill Clinton who was the leader of the United States between January 1993 and January 2001. After all, whatever Osama bin Laden was he did at least speak honestly with regards to his intentions. However, Bill Clinton had a host of special advisors, an unquestioning media to ply his propaganda, and he could keep a straight face when manipulating language in order to fulfill his policy agenda.
Today all over the world people have to pay enormous airport taxes because of tightened security after September 11. This is also ironic. After all, the same security agencies in countless nations somehow missed around 8,000 International Islamists who travelled to Bosnia and Kosovo, in order to kill Orthodox Christians during the Bosnian and Kosovo wars. Of course, for the mass media which ignored this vital reality during the Bosnian war, it sums up the "propaganda machine" whereby senior politicians, special advisers, trained media corporate specialists, covert operatives, and other unsavory realities, work hand in hand.
The same grim reality is now happening in Syria whereby Islamists, the US and the United Kingdom policy objectives work in tandem. The usual players like Saudi Arabia and Turkey are also on board. At the same time the media war is in full swing once more in order to "serve the agenda" of Washington, London, Paris, Riyadh, and other powerful nations involved in destabilizing Syria.
However, the one main difference with Bosnia and Syria is that Iran is now fully aware that their past adventures in the Balkans merely assisted Islamists who deem Shia Muslims, Alawites and Orthodox Christians to be equal infidels and worthy of killing. During the war in Bosnia both the United States and Iran were on the same side. Also, Osama bin Laden negated his anti-Shia policy objective which meant the "marriage of convenience was a threesome." This is the reality of what befell the Bosnian Serbs but somehow this was mainly ignored during the entire conflict.
September 11 and international terrorism - why no investigation into Bill Clinton and his administration?
The Bill Clinton administration gave the "green light" for international Islamists to enter Bosnia and Kosovo. In time this would manifest itself with the brutal September 11 attacks against America and other international terrorist attacks like Madrid. Bill Clinton isn't the only American leader to "support international terrorism from a distance" but clearly it is no coincidence that conflict in Libya, and now in Syria, bare all the same hallmarks of "a marriage of convenience." This certainly leads to the suspicion that the Clinton family - this time Hillary Clinton along with the "dark shadows" of people like Zbigniew Brzezinski - are following the same ratlines in Syria which have been used in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Kosovo and Libya.
Abu Zubair al-Haili (Mohammed Haydar Zammar) entered Bosnia in order to kill Orthodox Christians and clearly this individual, like countless others, was given the Bill Clinton "Green Light" to enter Bosnia. Abu Zubair al-Haili was instrumental in the Hamburg al-Qaeda cell that helped the September 11 network to flourish. He further developed his skills in terrorism and hatred towards non-Muslims in Bosnia which was fertile ground because of the Bill Clinton administration.
Abu Zubair al-Haili was also instrumental in bringing Mohammed Atta into the al-Qaeda network. Clearly, the actions of Abu Zubair al-Haili in Bosnia gave him further credentials. Mohammed (Mohamed) Atta rewarded America's support of Islamic terrorist networks from "a convenient distance" by blowing up the World Trade Center.
American Airlines Flight 77 also had a powerful Bosnian connection because two Islamists on board had also gone to Bosnia to kill Orthodox Christians. Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon but of course very few questions were raised about these Islamists being on the same side of America under Bill Clinton. However, Nawaf Alhazmi and Khalid al-Mihdhar had served in Bosnia. Also, coming from the land of "institutional religious hatred," Saudi Arabia, then clearly killing infidels would have been ingrained within the House of War theory.
Indeed, it is remarkable that no connection between the policies of Bill Clinton in the Balkans and September 11, haven't resulted in arrests or at least an open Senate hearing whereby he should testify to the American public. Surely, with 13 out of 19 terrorists of September 11 being connected to Bosnia and Kosovo then surely this must raise eyebrows? Apparently, the American public must be "extremely forgiving" because despite the thousands of American people who died on September 11 the connection between Bosnia, Kosovo and the "green light" by the Bill Clinton administration, appears to not be on the agenda.
The idea of counter-terrorism is to research how terrorist networks spread their ideology and so forth and then to "cut off the ratlines" or clampdown on areas of weakness within national security. Also, ratlines that enable terrorist networks to flourish should be held accountable. However, with 13 of 19 Islamists who did September 11 belonging to the side of the policies of the Bill Clinton administration in the Balkans, then it does get rather confusing. Bill Clinton, just like Zbigniew Brzezinski, will not "bat an eyelid" but clearly the Islamist ratlines that enabled September 11, point in the direction of the US and Islamist "marriage of convenience." This "marriage of convenience" applies to Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo and in the modern period it is once more coming alive in Syria.
French Intelligence documents stipulate that Mohammed Atta visited Bosnia on three different occasions between 1994 and 1999. This follows on that not only were Islamists going to Bosnia and Kosovo to kill Orthodox Christians but they were also planning other international terrorist attacks. The Bill Clinton administration by giving the "green light" in the Balkans to international Islamists was also violating every counter-terrorist approach that you have. After all, with 13 out of 19 Islamists being based in Bosnia and Kosovo then this "breathing space" enabled many international terrorist plots to be planned without any checks by external security agencies. This can be seen by the fact that the September 11 plot materialized and clearly the terrain of Bosnia and Kosovo enabled long-term strategies to go unanswered.
Two American nationals who were beheaded also witness the Bosnia connection. Daniel Pearl was beheaded according to viable sources by Khalid Shaikh Mohammed after being lured by Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh. Khalid Shaikh Mohammed fought as a Mujahideen fighter in Bosnia with glee and like fellow Mujahideen fighters he would have enjoyed torturing Orthodox Christians given the chance. Likewise, Ahmad Omar Saeed Sheikh was radicalized in Bosnia.
Another American national beheaded was Paul Marshall Johnson (Jnr.) who was killed by supporters of Abdulaziz Issa Abdul-Moshin al-Muqrin. This al-Qaeda leader in Saudi Arabia had also served in Bosnia and this fueled his hatred to an even higher degree. Not only this, the training he received in Bosnia enhanced his skills and gave him further credibility. It also hints that Saudi Arabia is "open" to international terrorists but will not allow al-Qaeda cells which threaten internal security.
The deplorable terrorist attack on Madrid also witness the Bosnia Muslim connection because 11 individuals involved in this cell had been to Bosnia. The "green light" that the Bill Clinton administration gave to Islamic terrorist networks to attack Bosnian Serbs was clearly "a policy fraught with danger." However, this policy which was "fraught with danger" only applies to the innocent deaths of American, Bosnian Serbs, Spanish nationals, and others, who have died because of the "marriage of convenience" between the Bill Clinton administration and international terrorist networks. After all, this policy which was "fraught with danger" doesn't apply to Bill Clinton because "his policies have largely been ignored." Therefore, just like Zbigniew Brzezinski and his ratlines to Afghanistan - it is clear that elites escape all democratic institutions in America because they are not being held accountable for "the chains of hatred" under their sphere of influence.
The bottom line is simple. September 11 and the ratlines that did this were the same individuals who were fighting on the same side of America in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo. Simply put, no Bosnian Orthodox Christians and communists in Afghanistan did September 11. On the contrary, individuals involved in September 11 were on the same side in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Kosovo - yet this question remains unanswered. Likewise, no accountability! Put frankly, without past American administrations supporting Islamic terrorist ratlines either covertly or by doing nothing to stem the flow of Islamists, then September 11 would never have materialized.
It is dangerous therefore to see America once more moving in the same direction related to Syria. The Clinton family connection and the shadows of people like Zbigniew Brzezinski are very troubling because the same modus operandi is happening once more against the people of Syria. Therefore, the lessons learnt from September 11 have been lost and individuals within the chain that enabled this tragic event to happen have escaped their past deeds.
kosovo_eng -71246 - 01.07.2012 : Nenad Grujic Beograd - (1)
True, the majority of investors are Americans who bore a relation to the "democratization" of Yugoslavia that was carried out at the end of the 90s of the last century. Among them is the former commander of NATO forces in Kosovo retired general Wesley Clark, who is determined to invest more than 5. 5 billion dollars in the former Yugoslav republic. Experts say that Washington's strategy could be characterized by the following slogan: "Conquer and plunder".
His closest supporters say that Wesley Clark is a great strategist. He wrote the book "Winning Modern Wars" that was published in 2001. In his fundamental survey the author mentions the Pentagon's list of countries that can be regarded as candidates for a quick change of leadership. On that list are Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Libya, and Somalia. Yugoslavia was not mentioned there because by that time the undesirable regime of Slobodan Milosevic had been overthrown with the help of precision and carpet bombings.
By the way, shortly after the Kosovo operation the tired general - Wesley Clark - retired and immediately got involved in the banking business. As it appears, he invested all his savings that he had accumulated as general, receiving from 150 to 200, 000 dollars annually, in the banking business. Because of that he had to earn additional money, working as a military analyst on U. S. TV channels. However, he did not lose his contacts with Kosovo, where, following the previously mentioned democratization, entrepreneurship, especially, in the field of medicine, was on the rise. And now the Envidity Company that is in Clark's ownership has filed a request for coal mining to the Kosovo authorities. Serbia that does not recognize Kosovo's independence says that it is determined to demand protection for the natural resources belonging to it. Nobody wants to ask for Belgrade's permission though as was the case many times before.
Wesley Clark always had good contacts with the Kosovo "government" and its "prime minister" - the former militant Hashim Thaci. There is even a street in Pristina named after Wesley Clark. By the way, a Russian political analyst and retired colonel-general Leonid Ivashov at the trial of Slobodan Milosevic mentioned the allied character of relations between the NATO troops and the militants of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). As we can see, this cooperation has borne fruit, including both political and economic benefits, a Serbian journalist, Nikola Vrzic, says.
"It is clear that during their "cooperation" that started in 1998, they concluded business agreements. Now it is absolutely clear that the bombings of Kosovo pursued both political and economic objectives: they were aimed not only at annexing Kosovo from Serbia, but also at depriving Kosovo of its extensive natural resources. As it appears, coal is Kosovo's main resource. Geologists say that there are other minerals there too. More prospecting for natural resources is needed there. "
Against the background of instability on the oil market, experts talk more and more often about good prospects for the development of synthetic fuel, including obtaining synthetic fuel from coal. Clark's firm believes that it is possible to produce up to 100, 000 barrels of the new source of energy daily.
The economic motives of NATO's military games are actually not a secret. Of interest here is the fact that in the middle of the 1990s, at the very height of the fratricidal war in Yugoslavia, the NATO countries' citizens bought property in the Balkan republic. Buyers were making preparations for a new "post-Yugoslav" reality. And Kosovo was a good training ground, an expert with the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pavel Kandel, said in an interview with the Voice of Russia.
"Kosovo created a precedent. It was the first link in the strategy of the "humanitarian" interventions of the NATO countries led by the USA. Shortly before the Kosovo operation, at the urgent request of Washington, NATO adopted a new doctrine, which set a number of tasks beyond defence limits before the member-states of the formerly defensive bloc. To be more exact, the possibility of interference in other regions of the world under this or that pretext became possible. "
The strategy that was used earlier can be used again. Coal mining is very good but oil still has a good price. So everything continued, following the former format: Iraq, Somalia, and Libya. Something has gone wrong with Syria though. Damascus wants to develop democracy without humanitarian aid from the West. There are problems with Iran too. But economic strategists have enough patience: investor-generals are ready for investing at any time.
war_crimes -68372 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 25-28 May 1992, village of Bradina (Bosnia and Herzegovina).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Summarily and brutally executed were: Pero Mrkajic (poured with petrol and set in fire), Rade Mrkajic, Zoran Mrkajic, Rajko Mrkajic, Spaso Mrkajic, Risto Mrkajic, Zoran Mrkajic, Velibor Mrkajic, Zoran Djordjic, Nedjo Djordjic, Bosko Djordjic, Milorad Kuljanin, Nedeljko Kuljanin, Gojko Kuljanin, Pero Kuljanin, Sreten Kuljanin, Zdravko Kuljanin, Milovan Kuljanin, Slavko Kuljanin, Nedeljko Kuljan, Kesa Vujicic, Dragan Vujicic, Zdravko Zivak, Toma Zivak, Veseljko Zivak, Branko Zuza, Njegos Koprivica and Bogdan Kures. It is believed that the number of murdered civilians is more than the 26 listed above.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): The Croatian and Moslem forces.
EVIDENCE: Report of the President of the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina; testimony of a witness whose name haa been filed with the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and with the State Commission for War Crimes and Crimes of Genocide.
NOTE: Sretko Kuljanin and one other Serb were beheaded and their heads were taken to Konjic as a trophy.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 7 June 1992, village of Tasovcic (Capljina), Bosnia and Herzegovina
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Civilians Milan Misita, alias Pota (1944), Ilija Misita, alias Pundo (1929), Vojko Ijacic, alias Majstor (1921), Branko Bekan, (1942), Djoko Djonlaga (1943), Djurdja Reljic (1943) and Vukasin Reljic, (1974) were violently killed. First three persons were killed on their door steps. The others were shot in the back while they were trying to flee the invading HOS units.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Jozo Vegar ( who murdered Milan Misita) and other unidentified HOS soldiers.
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is known to the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and kept on its files.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 7 June 1992, village Klepci (Capljina), Bosnia and Herzegovina
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Simana Cukteras, nee Slijepcevic (1925), massacred on her doorsteps.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): HOS soldier from Capljina
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is deposited with the Association of the Serbs from Bosnia and Hercegovina.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 7 June 1992, around 14. OO, Potkosa village (Capljina), Bosnia and Herzegovina
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Bosa Ijacic, (1928), massacred on her doorsteps.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): HOS soldiers from the Seitanic family residing in the village of Oplicic, who were the victim's next-door neighbours.
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is deposited with the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Hercegovina.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 7 June 1992, around 15:00, Recice village (Capljina), Bosnia and Herzegovina
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Radoslavka Zdralic, (1932), massacred on her doorsteps.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): HOS soldiers from the Suta family living in the neighbouring village of Oplicic, Cuckovina hamlet.
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is deposited with the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 7 June 1992, Prebilovci village (Capljina), Bosnia and Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Gospava Dragicevic, alias Gosa, (1905), and Draginja Medic, alias Draga, (1930), massacred on their doorsteps.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): HOS soldiers from Capljina
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is deposited with the Association of the Serbs from Bosnia and Hercegovina.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Morning of 10 June 1992, village of Cemerno near Sarajevo.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After the brutal attack on the village, in which there were only civilians, 29 Serbs were murdered and massacred, and the village was burned down. The following persons were killed: Djordje Bunjevac (56), Rajko Bunjevac (56), Goran Bunjevac (35), Koviljka Bunjevac (56), Milosava Bunjevac, Milan Bunjevac, Ranko Bunjevac and Slavojka Bunjevac (7), Radinka Damjanovic (32), Ranka Damjanovic (30), Pasa Damjanovic (52), Zdravko Damjanovic (27), Staka Damjanovic (57), Stanoje Markovic, Djuka Markovic, Manojlo Markovic, Milenko Trifkovic (59), Jana Trifkovic (47), Rajko Trifkovic (17), Zarko Malesevic, Milovan Malesevic, Miroslav Jankovic, Sreten Jankovic, Stana Rasevic (68), Svetozar Kapetanovic, Radomir Jevtic, Gojko Djurdajic, Nedeljko Micic and Novo Cvjetkovic.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Moslem-Croatian forces.
EVIDENCE: A video recording the site of the crime with testimonies of Petar Rasevic and of a survived member of the Trifkovic family.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 6 July 1992, border between Montenegro and Bosnia- Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Members of The Serb Territorial Defence force of the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina killed a family of three trying to evacuate, with permission, from Foca to Montenegro.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Six members of the Territorial Defence force of the Serbian Republic.
EVIDENCE: Charges have been brought before the Higher Court in Podgorica against the six persons concerned for committing a war crime against civilians, as stated in the information No. A. 69/92 dated 28 October 1992, received from the Federal Public Prosecutor.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Between 25 and 28 September 1992, villages of Rogosije and Nedrista near Milici (Bosna and Herzegovina).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The following persons were killed: D. Alimpic; J. Sevkusic; M. Kovacevic; M. Vuicic; Lj. Jurosevic; Z. Ravnjakovic; M. Mitrovic; Luka and Velimir Majstorovic; Nedjo, Nenad and Mile Stanisic; Dragoljub and Radomir Deuric; Zarko, Milomir and Marko Prodanovic; Bora and Tomislav Tesic; C. Tosic; M. Mijic; R. Rebic; Radenko and Tomislav Tesic. Three corpses are still unidentified, while nine others have not yet been found. Two of the victims were impaled. The others were first shot into the legs to prevent them from running away and then they were massacred, beheaded and set in fire. A number of corpses were found castrated or with fingers cut off.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the Moslem armed forces.
EVIDENCE: TV Belgrade filmed story showing massacred bodies and account by S. Djeric, surgeon in the hospital in Milici and a report of the US journalist Richard Ross.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 20/21 December 1991, 44 Nikola Tesla Street, Novska, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The Couple Keleura, Mirko and Marica, nee Milanovic, and the couple Uzelac, Andrija and Jela, were massacred in the home of the Keleura family. Jela Uzelac was beheaded, Marica Keleura's body was ripped from throat to genitals, while Andrija Uzelac was found with his left hand fingers chopped off.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S)S: Kata Tomic known as Katica, next- door neighbour of the murdered family, with a group of ethnic Albanians members of the Croatian National Guards.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Dragan and Drazen Keleura.
NOTE: The victims were buried in the village of Borovac. No autopsy was performed but there is testimony of their relatives.
war_crimes -68371 - 07.04.2012 : Yugoslav Government Beograd - (0)
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Second half of 199l, village of Karadzicevo, UNPA.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Radomir Tismak, Zoran Sodolovac, Bogdan Rajicic, Cedo Marceta, Sveto Marceta, Miroslav Kuzmanovic, Drazen Petrovic, Zeljko Petrovic and Radmila Katic - all Serb civilians, were most brutally killed. Radmila Katic was massacred (cut throat), while Zoran Sodolovac was beheaded.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): ZNG members.
EVIDENCE: A video made at the site of the crime.
NOTE: ZNG members raided into the village with three trucks and one tank bearing JNA symbols, which misled the villagers and they went out to welcome their army.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Early January 1992, Pakrac (UNPA).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Nevenka Vuckovic, age 64, killed by a gunshot in the head.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Croatian National Guards.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Jovan Miljanic.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Willful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 16-17 February 1992, village of Cerna near Zupanja, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Rade, Anica, Nena, Milena (16) and Marko (13) Olujic killed by a gunshot in their family home.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Ivan Cetina, commander of the Croatian National Guards in the village, and Jakisa Situm, Ivan Mandic and Ivan Stepic.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Branko Olujic given to the State Commission for Establishing War Crimes of Genocide against Serbs and other Ethnic Communities during the Armed Conflicts in Croatia (current address: 69 Zemunska Street, Dobanovci).
NOTE: According to Branko Olujic the Zagreb weekly "Arena" published a story on the crime.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Willful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 25 February 1992, around 21:00, 17 Kranjceviceva Street, Daruvar, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Radovan (36), Jovanka, nee Medakovic (32), Dejan (14) and Nenad (10) Radosavljevic murdered in their home.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Croatian National Guards from Daruvar.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Milica Milkovic, nee Radosavljevic, given to the State Commission for Establishing War Crimes of Genocide against Serbs and Other Ethnic Communities during Armed Conflicts in Croatia (current address 8 Baranji Karolja, Temerin).
NOTE: Remains of the killed Radosavljevic family were buried in the village of Imsovac near Daruvar. According to the information on the reported crime, a Croatian National Guard whose family name was Mudri was arrested on suspicion of having committed this crime and subsequently acquitted by the court.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 26 March 1992, village of Sijekovac near bosanski Brod, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After an incursion into the village, 12 local Serb civilians were executed. The following were killed: Branislav Zecevic, Borislav Zecevic, Jovo Zecevic, Milan Zecevic, Pejo Bacic, Risto Bacic, Zarko Bacic, Vid Radovanovic (an infirm old man), Zeljko Radovanovic, Milan Milosevic, Nenad Milosevic and Momir Martic. 50 Serb houses were totally destroyed.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Moslem-Croatian forces. EVIDENCE: A video recording the site of the crime and testimonies of eyewitnesses.
NOTE: The crime site was visited by Fikret Abdic, member of the BH Presidency.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 26 March 1992, around 16:00 hours, Sijekovac, northern Bosnia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: An armed paramilitary Moslem-Croatian group first called the inhabitants of the village of Sijekovac to negotiations. After the negotiations, as confirmed by a delegation of Serbs, had failed, the group attacked the village and killed Jovo Zecevic and his sons Milan, Petar and Vaso; Luka Milosevic and his sons Zeljo and Dragan; Vido Radanovic and his son Mirko, and Sreto Trifunovic. They loaded some of the corpses on trucks and tractors and threw them into the Sava River.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): The crime has been committed by the members of the Croatian ZNG, led by Anto Prkacin and some Moslems (enclosed is a list of names of 28 persons who massacred the villagers) who previously invited the Serb delegation to the crisis headquarters in Sijekovac.
EVIDENCE: A written testimony concerning the crime and its perpetrators, given by the Serbs who participated in the negotiations: Milan Bacic, Milan Zecevic and Nikola Kusljic.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 3 April 1992, village of Kostres near bosanski Brod, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Upon incursion into the village, 66 Serb inhabitants were massacred. The following were killed: four members of the Zoric family, three members of the Stanic family, two members each of the Mitric, Gojkovic, Ivic, Pavic, Misic and Djuric families respectively, one member each of the Vasic and Lazic families. In addition, the massacred included 20 men, 15 women and 10 children who have not yet been identified.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Alija Selimagic, Sead Mujcin, Enes Havic, Becir Hodzic and other members of the Moslem-Croatian forces.
EVIDENCE: A video recording a statement by Alija Selimagic.
NOTE: Before massacring their victims, the perpetrators raped women including girls aged 12 and 14. The 108th Brigade of the Croatian Army also took part in the operations around Bosanski Brod.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 6 April 1992, Kupres, Bosnia-Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After torture, 29 local Serb civilians were most brutally killed. The following were killed: Niko Karajlic (massacred), Milorad Kontic called Ciro (left eye taken out), Spiro Bosnic (massacred), Todor Dragoljevic, Tripko Pavlovic called Lola (killed by a hit on the head with a blunt instrument so that the upper part of his skull was smashed), Stevo Bubonja (right eye taken out), Lazo Kontic (right side of the face smashed after a hit with a blunt instrument; right ear cut off), Stevo Vugonja (right eye taken out), Milan Duvnjak, Cvetko Duvnjak, Jovo Duvnjak, Dusan Duvnjak, Vlado Duvnjak (80), Mitar Duvnjak, Drago Celebic, Marko Kalinic, Dragan Sormaz, Predrag Bastic, Jovo Pavlovic, Momcilo Sesum, Jovo Zubic, Nedeljko Karan and Vlastimir Jarcevic.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Ratko Rebrina, Safet and Sulejman Pilic, Matko Vila, Ivo Males, Branko Zulj and other members of the Croatian- Moslem forces.
EVIDENCE: A video recording the site of the crime and testimonies of witnesses, the statement of Milica Sormaz, photos of the killed persons.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians
TIME AND PLACE: 1 May 1992, village of Odzak and Kupres, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The following nine Serb inhabitants of Kupres were killed: Jovo Pavlovic, Mirko Kaulic, Jovo Zubic, Dragan Sormaz, Vlastimir Jarcevic, Nedeljko Karan, Vlado Duvnjak, Momcilo Sesum and Predrag Bastic.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Safet Pilic, Sulejman Pilic, Sejo Pilic, Ekrem Pilic, Milenko Vila, Marko Vila, Mirko Vila, Mijo Vila, Zoran Vila, Ratko Rebrina, Smail Mandjuka, Miroslav Kaminski, Ante Jelic, Zijad Mandjuka, Bozo Zulj and Pero Dumancic. They are all from Kupres and on the run.
EVIDENCE: After the report was made on the site of the crime in cooperation with the military investigating authorities, the Higher Public Prosecutor's Office in Banja Luka filed charges, No. KU-94/92 dated 13 May 1992, against all of the 16 persons involved on suspicion that they cruelly and perfidiously killed those Serb villagers for ethnic reasons and thus committed a crime against humanity and international law.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 2 May 1992, Konjic (Bosnia and Herzegovina).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Djuro Magazin (70) was killed near his home, while mending the damaged fence around the Serb Orthodox church.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): M. Comaga, a Moslem extremist
EVIDENCE: Report of the President of the Association of Serbs of Bosnia
and Herzegovina. NOTE:
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Second half of May 1992, detention camp Ljubuski
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After being arrested in Capljina in late April 1992 Drazen Tripic (S/O Sreten) and Sreten Tripic were tortured in Ljubusko camp for a month, taken to the Trebizat river and killed near Kravica waterfalls. Drazen was impaled in the presence of his father and roasted alive. Sreten was then mutilated and killed.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the Croatian Armed Forces (HOS) from Capljina or Ljubusko
EVIDENCE: Statement of a witness whose identity is known to the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina and kept on its files.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 22 May 1992, villages of Bjelovcina, Cerice and Donje Selo (Bosnia and Herzegovina).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Summarily executed were: four members of the family Milosevic, Milorad Cecez, Dusan Cecez, Velimir Cecez, Mirko Cecez, Stevica Ninkovic, Marko Ninkovic, Rade Ninkovic, Predrag Kuljanin, Tihomir Kuljanin and Novica Zivak. It is believed that the number of the killed Serbs is even bigger.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): The Croatian and Moslem forces
EVIDENCE: Report of the President of the Association of Serbs from Bosnia and Herzegovina.
NOTE: After the attack, all Serbs from these villages were taken to the Celebici detention camp.
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DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: September-October 1991, Vukovar, UNPA.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Direct involvement in the organized killings of Serb civilians, JNA officers and Territorial Defence members who were brought to the Vukovar Hospital for treatment of their wounds.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Jure Njaro, a doctor; Sadika Bilus, a doctor; Berislav Kucan and his wife Ljilja, a nurse; Mirko Mandic, a plaster maker; Adela Kolesar, a nurse; Stef, a dentist; Andrija Sijanovic, a doctor; Tomislav Meretler and his wife Ljubica, a nurse; Martin Dosen and his brother called Boxer; Braco Sain and a large group of the rest of the staff suspected of having participated in the commission of crimes.
EVIDENCE: Testimonies of witnesses to the Federal Secretariat for Internal Affairs.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Early October 1991, Borovo Naselje.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Milo Djukic and two unidentified civilians, all Serbs, were killed in order to pursue the policy of ethnic cleansing. They were first imprisoned, physically abused and tortured, inter alia, by stabbing and swallowing salt, etc.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Perpetrators are Vlado Sabljic, Vlado Sterc and Marko Filkovic including Stevan Demetar who also was also involved in the torture of victims.
EVIDENCE: Investigation proceedings have been instituted against the above named persons. All evidence on the nature of the crime and time of its commission including testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK No. 1364/92 at the Military Prosecutor's Office.
NOTE: The above persons were exchanged under the relevant Agreement reached by the Governments of the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: mid-October 1991, Borovo Naselje.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After being arrested Cedo Jovic, N. Vojvodic, Panitic (waiter), Milan Siladjin and 6 more unidentified Serbs were taken to Vukovar and killed there. This was part of the action to take civilians from shelters, houses and apartments and conscript them by force.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): There is evidence that the perpetrators are Vlado Sterc and Vlado Demetar, members of ZNG military police.
EVIDENCE: Investigation proceedings against the abovementioned persons have been instituted by the Military Prosecutor's Office. All evidence about the nature of the crime and time of its commission including testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK No. 1364/92 at the Military Prosecutor's Office.
NOTE: Both perpetrators were exchanged under the relevant Agreement reached by the Governments of the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 16-18 October 1991, Kukin Do, in the area of the village of Siroka Kula near Gospic, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: After being tortured 24 Serb civilians from Gospic were executed. Forensics have identified the following 11 persons: Branko Stulic, Ljubica Trifunovic, Stanko Smiljanic, Dana Bulj, Simo Kljajic, Zeljko Mrkic, Mirjana Kalanj, Djordje Kalanj, Dragica Vranes, Nikola Gajic and Radovan Barac.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the ZNG of the Republic of Croatia.
EVIDENCE: Forensic findings; a video filmed at the site of the crime; a video containing testimonies of the family members of the killed; military medical corps review magazine No. 2/92.
NOTE: According to the testimony of witnesses, by the end of October 1991, app. 500 Serb residents of Gospic were missing. All of them are believed to have been killed.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: May/June 1992, village of Zagoni, Bratunac, Bosnia- Herzegovina.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Cruel torture of Serb civilians (taking out of brain, eyes, breaking of bones and ribs, belly stabbs, etc. ). The following were killed: Dusanka Paunovic, Rada Milosevic, Miodrag Madovic, Dragoljub Gvozdenovic and Milos Jovanovic-Spat.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Moslem forces.
EVIDENCE: Forensic findings of the Bratunac Health Centre which have been submitted to the State Commission for War Crimes and Crime of Genocide.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: November 1991, Vukovar, UNPA.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Planting of mines and other explosives in civilian facilities in the Vukovar area, which claimed many lives among the civilians including children.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Zdenko Novak (1959), formerly residing in Vukovar; Franjo Brodanjac (1969), formerly residing in Nasice and Zoran Cako (1960), formerly residing in Djenovac, municipality of Nasice.
EVIDENCE: Reports on the autopsy performed on the victims, testimonies of witnesses and partial confessions of the accused are kept on the criminal records of the Military Court in Belgrade, KI No. 125/92.
NOTE: The above persons have been indicted.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: November 1991 (date unknown), Borovo Naselje.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Milan Vezmar, Milorad Zoric and Bosko Grbic were killed in shelter, as part of the campaign to exterminate the Serbian population in this region.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the military police of Croatian National Guard.
EVIDENCE: The Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade has initiated an investigation against Mate Jozicic and Darko Babic, Croatian citizens, who showed the above Serbs to members of the military police of the Croatian National Guards. All evidence about the nature of the crime and time of its commission including testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK No. 1366/92 of the Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade.
NOTE: Mate Jozicic and Darko Babic were exchanged under the Agreement on POW Exchange reached by the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME. Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 15 November 1991, Vukovar.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Ivan Jagic, 7 Cvorkovac Street, Vukovar, was killed after hearing only because he was a Serb.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Perpetrators, by order of Ivica Stojanovic, are Ivica Smit and Milan Linic, all members of the military police of the Croatian National Guard.
EVIDENCE: Investigation proceedings have been instituted against the above persons. All evidence about the nature of the crime and time of its commission including testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK No. 1139/92 at the Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade.
NOTE: The above persons were exchanged under the relevant Agreement reached by the Governments of the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 15 November 1991, Marino Selo, Novska, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The Croatian ZNG forces massacred in this village 14 local Serbs of the villages of Kip and Klisa near Daruvar (now UNPA); namely, Mijo Danojevic, Filip Gojkovic, Mijo Gojkovic, Nikola Gojkovic, Nikola Krajnovic, Petar Novakovic, Jovo (Tadija) Popovic, Jovo (Teja) Popovic, Milan Popovic, Pero Popovic, Dusan Popovic, Jovo Gojkovic, Rade Gojkovic, Savo Gojkovic.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): It is assumed that the persons taking part in the torture and murder of Serbs were members of the Daruvar police and the Croatian military - Vlado Kec, Gojko Boro, Josip Hunjek, Keja Joscak, Zeljko Sepl, Zoran Sepl and Damir Sepl.
EVIDENCE: Testimonies of eye witness Mija Krajinovic concerning the crime made to the Red Cross Organization of Yugoslavia and documents of this Organization submitted to the Joint Commission to trace missing persons and mortal remains.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: The night of 11-12 December 1991, village of Paulin Dvor near Osijek, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: During the night of 11-12 December 1991, the Croatian forces and some Croatian paramilitary units massacred 18 Serb villagers and one ethnic Hungarian, who served in a Serb family. The following villagers were killed: Bozo Sudzukovic (1913), Marija Sudzukovic (1914), Dara Vukovic (1934), Draga Katic (1919), Mile Katic (1933), Mitar Katic (1909), Petar Katic (1937), Bosa Katic (1939), Milan Labus (1940), Jovo Gavric (1936), Vuko Medic (1929), Milka Rodic (1925), Bosko Jelic (1942), Andja Jelic (1953), Spasoje Milovic (1933), Milka Milovic (1933), Boja Grubisic (1916), Milka Lapcevic (1916), Karlo Keckes (approximately 55).
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): The ZNG forces and Croatian paramilitary. One of the perpetrators undeniably Nikola Ivankovic known as Danguba from the village of Vladislavci, age 35. Other perpetrators are believed to be also from the neighbouring villages of Vladisavci and Hrastin.
EVIDENCE: A testimony of witness Novica Sudzukovic deposited with the State Commission for Establishing War Crimes and Crime of Genocide Committed against the Population of Serb and other origin during Armed Conflicts in Croatia; medical report on the causes of death of Dara Vujnovic (a cut on the neck and face, both hands, and a piece of skull removed). There is also evidence in possession of the Red Cross Organization of Yugoslavia relating to this crime.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 17 December 1991, around midnight, Podravska Slatina, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Stanko Grkinic (1924) was killed by a gunshot in his bedroom. His wife Marica (1926) was gravely wounded by seven shots.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Croatian National Guards
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Milan Grkinic, hospital discharge paper for Marica Grknic.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians
TIME AND PLACE: 25 December 1991, Osijek (Croatia)
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: During the night of 25 December, the police broke into the apartment of Milenko Stanar (1948) who was there with his mother. They dragged him away and savagely killed. His mother had to pay for her son's body to give him a decent burial.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the Croatian police from Osijek.
EVIDENCE: Statement by a witness, Novica Sudjzukovic, Belgrade, to the Commission entrusted with the task of collecting information on the crimes of genocide and other crimes against humanity carried out on the population of Serbian and other origins. The statement was given on 7 April 1992.
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The provisions of the national criminal legislation of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1977 Criminal Code, still in effect in all former Yugoslav Republics) are in full accordance with the international obligations assumed. The Criminal Code of the SFR of Yugoslavia, Chapter XVI, defines as crimes against humanity and international law, genocide (Article 141); war crimes against the civilian population (Article 142); war crimes against wounded and sick persons (Article 143); war crimes against POWs (Article 144); organization of groups and instigation to the commission of genocide and war crimes (Article 145); arbitrary killing and wounding of the adversary (Article 146); looting of the killed and wounded persons on the battle front (Article 147); use of prohibited means of combat (Article 148); hurting of the parliamentary (Article 149); inhuman treatment of wounded and sick persons and POWs (Article 150); destruction of cultural and historical monuments (Article 151); instigation of a war of aggression (Article 152); racial and other discrimination (Article 154).
The Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reiterates its readiness to cooperate fully with the Commission of Experts and the Secretary- General of the United Nations in the further investigation and ascertainment of all facts related to grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and violation of other provisions of the law of war and humanitarian law.
Belgrade, 3 November 1992
I. WILFUL KILLING OF CIVILIANS
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 4 July 1991, Borovo Naselje.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In order to intimidate the Serb population and to ethnically purge territories, Croatians killed Dragan Mijatovic, Stojan Stojanovic and some other unidentified ethnic Serbs.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Perpetrators belong to the ZNG and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Croatia, Zdravko Komsic, Marko Nujic, Stjepan Mackovic and Tade Istuk.
EVIDENCE: A request to carry out an investigation against the above persons was lodged by the Military Prosecutors Office in Belgrade. All evidence relating to the designation and timing of the crime and testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK - No. 1139/92 on this case in the Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade.
NOTE: Under the agreement on the exchange of prisoners between the Governments of the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia, all of the above persons were exchanged in Nemetin on 14 August 1992.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians
TIME AND PLACE: 13 July 1991, Borovo Selo (UNPA)
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: On the date indicted above around 17:00 hours, Milenko Djuricic was taken away and killed by two members of the Croatian National Guards. His corpse was found in the Dunav River near Begec on 17 July 1991. His family identified him on 27 July and he was buried in Novi Sad.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Nebojsa Hodak, who arrested Djuricic, is suspected of being one of the killers.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of the victim's wife to the State Commission for War Crimes and Crimes of Genocide, on 7 April 1992. Death Certificate issued by the Medical School in Novi Sad; autopsy report No. SP 566/91 made by the Forensic Institute in Novi Sad, and other relevant documents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the District Court judge in Novi Sad.
NOTE: Nebojsa Hodak's name is associated with the murder of the Zec family in Zagreb.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 29 June 1991, village of Sotin, Vukovar.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: In order to expel the Serbian population from that region, through intimidation, threats against life and property, a villager, Mihajlo Nadj, was also killed in an attack against the village of Sotin.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Perpetrators are Zdravko Komsic, Stjepan Mackovic, Ivan Mikulic and Tade Istuk, all Croatian National Guards.
EVIDENCE: The Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade has instituted investigation proceedings against the above persons. All evidence about the nature of the crime and time of its commission including testimonies of witnesses are in the file I VTK No. 1139/92 of the Belgrade Military Prosecutor's Office.
NOTE: All of the above named were exchanged in Nemetin, on 14 August 1992, under the Agreement on POW Exchange reached by the Governments of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians
TIME AND PLACE: July-August 1991, Mirkovci (now UNPA)
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Members of the Croatian National Guards brutally killed the following villagers: Milan Macura, Cvetko Sivcic, Pajo Sasic, Marija Sasic (before being killed she was subjected to torture), Dragoljub Gradjanski (his throat was cut while he was asleep).
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): The military and police forces of the Croatian National Guards.
EVIDENCE: Statement of the competent authorities in the village of Mirkovci, submitted to the Red Cross office in Novi Sad and to the State Commission for War Crimes and Crimes of Genocide.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: 2 August 1991, Sarvas (now UNPA).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The following Serbian civilians were killed: Melanija Bojanic (1927), Dusan Bojanic (1950), Branka Bojanic (1952), Veselin Adamovic (1944), Gospava Adamovic (1949), Lazar Jerenic (1954), Zorka Petrovic (1926), Svetislav Sandic (1939) and Dusan Milojevic (1964).
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the police and the Croatian National Guard, Republic of Croatia.
EVIDENCE: Report issued by the Local Community Office of Jelenovo (formely Sarvas), testimonies of Veljko Tepavac, Radomir Simic and an administrative officer who was unwilling to reveal his identity.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: Between 23 and 27 August 1991, Sisak, Croatia.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Zoran Vranesevic, employee of the "Karic Banka" in Beograd and previously working in the Sisak police station was killed on his way to the village of Kinjacka for the burial of his father. He was killed by a gunshot in the head and chest.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Members of the armed units of the Republic of Croatia.
EVIDENCE: Testimony of Ljubica Vranesevic (8 Misarska Street, Beograd)
NOTE: According to the testimony of Aleksandar Banjanin, from Sisak, Zoran's body was found near the place called Stari Grad, hung by a willow tree and pushed into the Kupa river. His remains were buried at the Sisak cemetery on 28 August 1992.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians
TIME AND PLACE: 26 August 1991, Borovo Naselje, near Vukovar (UNPA)
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: The Croatian National Guards killed Ilija Lozancic in his home as part of the campaign of intimidating and plundering the property of the Serbian civilian population aimed at forcing them to move out of the region.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Ivo Zivkovic and some other members of the Croatian National Guards.
EVIDENCE: Investigation proceedings have been instituted by military prosecutor against Ivo Zivkovic. All evidence about the nature and time of the commission of the crime are kept in file I VTK No. 1142/92 of the Military Prosecutor's Office in Belgrade.
NOTE: The above person has been exchanged under the Agreement reached by the Governments of the FR of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia.
DESIGNATION OF CRIME: Wilful killing of civilians.
TIME AND PLACE: August-November 1991, Vukovar (now UNPA).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION: About 200 civilians were taken out of shelters in Vukovar and Borovo Naselje and executed. The bodies of victims were thrown into the Danube.
INDICATION CONCERNING PERPETRATOR(S): Zdenko Novak, Djuro Brodjanac, Ksenija Piplica, Martin Sabljic, Zoran Sipos and nine other members of the Croatian National Guard in Vukovar.
EVIDENCE: Files I K Nos. 108/92, 112/92, 125/92, 133/92 and 144/92 of the Military Court in Belgrade.
NOTE: The above persons were exchanged in Nemetin on 14 August 1992, under the Agreement reached in Budapest.
war_crimes -68368 - 07.04.2012 : Yugoslav Government Beograd - (0)
FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA
R E P O R T
SUBMITTED TO THE COMMISSION OF EXPERTS ESTABLISHED PURSUANT TO SECURITY
COUNCIL RESOLUTION 780 (1992)
BH - Bosnia and Herzegovina
ECMM - European Commission Monitoring Mission
HDZ - Croatian Democratic Union
HOS - Croatian Armed Forces
JNA - Yugoslav People's Army
POWs - Prisoners of War
TANJUG - Yugoslav News Agency
UNPA - United Nations Protected Area
UNPROFOR - United Nations Protection Force
ZNG - Croatian National Guard (Army)
I N T R O D U C T I O N
In response to the requirement contained in paragraph 1 of Security Council resolution 780 of 5 October 1992, the Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia submits its Report on the violations of humanitarian law, including breaches of the Geneva Conventions, being committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia supports the establishment of an impartial Commission of Experts to collate, examine and analyse information relating to grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and other violations of humanitarian law.
The Government of the FR of Yugoslavia considers that it is of the utmost importance for further political solution of the crisis in the territory of the former Yugoslavia to establish all relevant information relating to armed conflicts and violence, particularly those relating to grave violations of the law of war and humanitarian law. The first and principal precondition for any future stability in the region and for relations among the new States which have emerged as a result of separation from Yugoslavia, as well as for further relations among its peoples is to determine responsibility for acts of violence, destruction, the suffering and violent death of a large number of the population.
The submitted Report describes gross violations of the law of war and of international humanitarian law, being perpetrated from the outbreak of conflicts in the Republic of Slovenia to date. The listed cases are based on documentary evidence gathered by Government authorities, non-governmental organizations and associations, and on reports of reliable news agencies. Documents for each of the listed cases are available to the Commission of Experts for its further study. In some of them proceedings are pending before the competent judicial authorities.
In an effort to submit the Report within the initial period of 30 days of the adoption of the resolution, it was not possible to include many other cases constituting or indicating equally grave breaches of the law of war conventions and violations of humanitarian law.
The Government authorities of the FR of Yugoslavia are in possession of the records and documents of the former SFR of Yugoslavia, containing information on the crimes against international law and perpetrators of such crimes and sanctioned, in accordance with international law, in the legislation of the SFR of Yugoslavia, which brought about the armed conflicts in Slovenia and, later on, in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. The documents cover the period which preceded their international recognition and when the SFR of Yugoslavia, as an internationally recognized State, exercised power on its entire territory. The documents reveal the relationship between causes and effects, the instigators and executioners in the events which escalated into subsequent gross violations of international humanitarian law and into war crimes. The FR of Yugoslavia will make these documents available to the Security Council Commission of Experts as well.
Enclosed is just a fraction of eyewitness evidence supplied by Yugoslav and foreign reporters. Such evidence is plenty, and some of it will be provided with all relevant information in future supplements to the present Report.
Over half a million of refugees fleeing the war and terror in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina have found shelter in the FR of Yugoslavia. Most of them are either eye witnesses or victims of violations of humanitarian law themselves. They witnessed killings, expulsions and other crimes committed against their close relatives, civilians and members of the armed forces of the SFR of Yugoslavia. The Government authorities and non-governmental organizations of the FR of Yugoslavia will continue to make this evidence available to the Commission of Experts and to the international public at large.
The work on the collection and systematic compilation of information on the war crimes committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia is exceptionally complex. Two criteria have been taken into account in their systematic compilation: on the one hand, the war crimes have been classified according to the sources of the law of war and humanitarian law, and, on the other, according to the nature of the armed conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia and under the provisions of the national criminal legislation of the former SFR of Yugoslavia.
Bearing in mind the nature and types of the crimes committed, the international legal basis for the punishment of these crimes perpetrated in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, which are mostly the Geneva Conventions for the Protection of War Victims (1949) and the Protocols I and II Additional to the Geneva Conventions (1977), should be supplemented by the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948), the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages (1979) and the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954). All these Conventions have been ratified by the former SFR of Yugoslavia.
In view of the types of breaches of international legal precepts contained in the principle sources of international humanitarian law, the crimes committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia can be classified into the following categories:
I) Wilful killing of civilians;
II) Wilful killing of detainees - POWs;
III) Inhuman treatment of civilians;
IV) Inhuman treatment of detainees - POWs;
V) Wilful killing and inhuman treatment of wounded and sick persons;
VI) Hostage-taking and detention camps;
VII) Wanton devastation and destruction of property;
VIII) Devastation of places of worship, cemeteries, cultural and historical monuments;
IX) Ethnic cleansing.
The inhuman killing of civilians, wounded and sick persons and detainees - POWs (this distinction is necessary to make because of the change in the legal characteristics of the armed conflict) is a very widespread form of the law of war and humanitarian law violations. As a rule, the killings were carried out in groups, seldom individually. In a number of cases, the groups were mixed. The victims were usually tortured and humiliated before execution. Particularly abhorrent were the massacres committed in Bjelovar (a large number of regular JNA soldiers were taken prisoner in the local barracks), in Gospic (at least 24), on the Korana river bridge in Karlovac (13 regular JNA members), in Borovo Selo (civilians), on the Kupres plateau (civilians and detainees on several occasions), in the village of Milici (civilians), etc.
The recent reports on mass graves near Vukovar, as referred to in the report of the Human Rights Commission's Special Rapporteur Tadeusz Mazowiecky of 28 October 1992, are still to be checked in order to ascertain whether there were systematic killings of civilians by the parties to the conflict as reprisals or for other motives or whether victims were killed in combat which lasted in that area for a very long time and was heavy.
Instances of inhuman treatment of civilians, the wounded and sick persons and detainees - POWs are also abundant. Women of all ages were raped and forcibly taken to brothels where they were abused by members of the armed forces and detainees - POWs were forced to make false statements for TV programmes and newspaper reports and subjected to various other physical or mental abuses.
The inhumane conditions of detention, in which civilians belonging to various ethnic groups were, frequently held with detainees - POWs, were often dangerous to their lives and harmful for their physical and mental health. Cases in point are the camps in the Bradina tunnel, in Trnopolje, Tomislavgrad, Sarajevo, Konjic and Mostar. The fate of many detainees in the camps in Herzegovina, for instance, is uncertain even today. Over 2, 000 Serbs detained in these camps have disappeared and their fate is unknown. Detained civilians were often used for massive exchanges of POWs which departed from some of the international legal rules: they were exchanged for perpetrators of very serious crimes who had either been tried or had not been brought to trial at all (those responsible for the massacre on the Korana River bridge in Karlovac, perpetrators of many murders in Vukovar and others).
Wanton devastation and destruction of property were carried out by the members of all military and paramilitary forces on the battle front across Croatia, and especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina. These were the wilful devastation and destruction related to ethnic cleansing in areas with mixed populations. Simply, homes were razed to prevent their fleeing owners from ever coming back. The main yardstick was the ethnicity of former inhabitants. This is a re-run of the gruesome events begun by the Independent State of Croatia in World War Two with the exception that in danger today are also Moslems, Croats and others.
The same is true of their systematic destruction of places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical monuments. Many such important monuments in western Slavonia and eastern Herzegovina no longer exist (Cathedral church in Mostar, Zitomislic monastery and others).
Ethnic cleansing as a grave violation of international humanitarian law under the provisions of Article 147 of the Geneva Conventions relative to the Protection of Civilians in Time of War (deportation and transfer of protected prisoners and wanton devastation and destruction of property are aimed at ruling out any possibility of deportees or displaced persons returning to their homes in the distant or near future), has taken large-scale proportions in the armed conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia. The documents on war crimes submitted to the Commission contained only the most serious cases of massive ethnic cleansing for which it is reasonable to assume to contain the elements of the crime of genocide.
serbian_krajina -68366 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people
Nearly two months after Croatian forces drovemore than 120, 000 Serbian troops and civilians from the Krajinaregion of Croatia, Serbian villages continue to burn and an averageof four to six Serbian civilians are found dead each day, sayofficials of the United Nations and the European Union "Since the August offensive, U. N. patrols have documented a systematic campaign of arson, murder and looting by the Croatian military, '' said Alun R. Roberts, the U. N. press officer in Knin. He said Croatian troops had "destroyed whole Serb villages, making it impossible for those Serbs who fled to return. "Our U. N. patrols are continuing to find bodies, usually of elderly Serbs, killed in their homes. Despite repeated requests by the U. N. to the Croatian authorities to intervene, they appear to make little effort, and usually do nothing. '' The killing of elderly Serbs, many of them too weak to flee, has shocked and angered U. N. and European Union monitors here. Many of the victims lived alone in abandoned hamlets, where they would be visited by aid workers bringing food. In recent weeks many have been found dead, usually with a single bullet wound in the head. Earlier this month, Croatian special forces made a sweep through the largely deserted Plavno Valley, where some 40 Serbian hamlets lie abandoned or in ruins. U. N. peacekeepers following the sweep found two elderly men dead, one shot in the back of the head and the other with his throat cut. The next day, the United Nations found three more elderly Serbs killed, including a 90-year-old woman. "Evidence of atrocities, an average of six corpses a day, continues to emerge, '' says the latest European Union rights report. "The corpses, some fresh, some decomposed, are mainly old men. Many have been shot in the back of the head or had throats slit. Others have been mutilated. Isolated pockets of elderly civilians report people gone missing or detained. ''
"Of 102 civilians and 126 military personnel, only 57 were apparently identifiable. It seems rather strange that so many should have been without ID cards. ECMM has interviewed witnesses who say their Serb relatives were definitely carrying IDs when they were killed, however their names do not appear on any of the lists. The Croatian authorities have stated that fingerprints and photographic records have been kept of all the unidentified bodies .. . "
The suspicions of the European monitors have increased in recent weeks, as their report makes clear. "Granic a Croatian official stated on 24 August that of all the 524 victims from Operation Storm, only 24 civilians had been identified, when in SS (UN Sector South) alone there were 33 identified civilian corpses on 11 August. The figures are either extremely inaccurate or there are mass graves unaccounted for. It can only be presumed that the tip of the iceberg. " If any observers remain unconvinced by this devastating assessment, they have only to read the report of the UN human-rights team, led by Petr Soucek, which wrote to the organisation's humanitarian- affairs officer from south-western Krajina on 30 August. "In Gracac gravesite we saw 81 graves (crosses), " his report said. "Only a few crosses bore a name of the soldiers. There were 22 more crosses than on 18 August when the site had been visited last time. In Korenica grave site, we found 21 crosses .. . with no names" Then the report takes on a chilling tone. "In the Czech battalion area located in Korenica, I was informed by the Operations officer that on Sunday 5 August, 21 Serb civilians had been seen .. . chased by Croatian soldiers along the Czech battalion base. Later on, soldiers had heard inhuman screaming and then shooting. It might be just a coincidence between those 21 civilians and the 21 graves with no names on them!"
- The Independent September 5, 1995 Croatians count toll in a 'clean war'; By: Robert Fisk
Nor is there any end to the Croatian depredations in formerly Serb Krajina. Over the weekend, Croatian troops burned 98 per cent of the houses in five more deserted Serb villages in the Cetine valley, once home to around 1, 800 Serbs. The graffiti on a wall which I saw in the gutted village of Kistanje, west of Knin, summed up the emotions of the victorious Croatian army whose supposed discipline has been widely praised in Croatia and abroad. "Ovo ste trazili, " it said. "You were asking for it. " Following the banishment of about 200, 000 Serbs from the Krajina, the number of Serbs who remained in Croatia is 150, 000 at most, out of 600, 000 who had lived there before the crisis, says "la Liberation" claiming that the nationalist authorities have deprived the Serbian population of all minority rights. They have already gone back on the autonomy status of the Serbian area, electoral rights of the Serbs, establishment of the human rights tribunal etc. All this has been done on the eve of new parliamentary elections. Moreover, for the purpose of the forthcoming population census in Croatia a category of "non-citizen" has been introduced.
"Zagreb lagalises ethnic cleansing" LA LIBERATION, Paris Sept '95
"The authorities of Franjo Tudjman do not recognize Serbs as citizens, but grant Croatian citizenship to Bosnian Croats who have never lived in Croatia. This is not merely ethnic cleansing, this is racist policy". While stressing this point, the extensive report in "La Liberation" concludes with a warning that all these crimes and terror elicited "reticent objections on the part of Europe and America, but without any results". -
"The Great Mover" by Boris Dezulovic Feral Tribune, Split, Croatia, 9/11 1995
Vicepresident of the Croatian government Bosiljko Misetic publicly summarized at a press conference the thoughts behind the statements of the Great Transporter: "Croatia doesn't want people of non-Croatian ethnicity living in her. "
"U. S. -trained forces massacre Serbs" By Gary Wilson Via Workers World News Service Reprinted from the Oct. 12, 1995 issue of Workers World newspaper
An open letter from the Belgrade-based Serbian-Jewish Friendship Society to the American Jewish Committee says that "anti-Serbian propaganda" is "a twin sister of anti- Semitism. " The letter states that today in Croatia a policy of eliminating the Serbs is being carried out. This policy is so thorough that "in Croatia there are ŠnowĆ no more Serbs than there are Jews in Germany or Poland. " The letter is signed by the chief rabbi of Yugoslavia as well as many other prominent Jews of Yugoslavia. But this letter has not been referred to in the U. S. media.
serbian_krajina -68365 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people
"Serbs in Krajina: past and future" ABC Saint-Bar
Madrid, 3/4 April - After Constantinopolis fell to Muslims in 1453, the Balkans were conquered within a short period of time. The whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina was occupied in 1463. After reaching the borders of the Austrian Monarchy, the Turks started their regular raids into the territory of this Germanic empire. They robbed and laid waste to everything. A few times they even reached the Alps. They came to Ljubljana too, the capital of Slovenia. During those raids, the local populace had to take refuge in the woods. Most often, however, they would leave those unsafe areas and emigrate northwards. Fleeing, these people would come as far as Bavaria and Italy. In that way, a true no man's land appeared at the southern borders of the Holy German Roman Empire, a kind of cordon sanitaire that the imperial authorities decided to make into a fortified borderland. Therefore, the Vienna authorities started to systematically settle this area with Serbs since the 15th century. In that way, a true military border was created. Settled in that protective belt zone, through the centuries, the Serbs turned into real warriors. In the Krajina region, their closed ranks were the best defense of the monarchy against the Turk attacks. In the 17th century, a military government was formed in the Austrian city of Graz. Its primary task was to organize the settlement of Serbs, who would later turn into the Austrian defense shield. In that way, the whole of Krajina was turned into a Serbian province. The Austrian Emperor solemnly confirmed the privileges given to Serbs on many occasions. He did it for the first time on September 5, 1538, and again on March 8, 1659. This, then, was the way in which the military border in Krajina came into being. It could be said that, through the centuries to come, there were no major conflicts between Serbs and Croats in that region. At the same time, a significant number of Serbs lived in the Croatian capital of Zagreb. In 1905, the Serbian-Croatian Political Coalition was formed in Zagreb. It played an active role in negotiations over the formation of Yugoslavia held during WW I. The Croatian political leaders were saying without wavering that they consider Serbs and Croats to be branches of one and the same nation. This was particularly stressed by Stjepan Radic, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party which was supported by the majority of Croatian peasantry. The only real antagonism between the Serbian and the Croatian population occurred during WW II. The Nazis attacked and destroyed a big part of Yugoslavia, and they established the Ustasha government in Zagreb. This Fascist state was led by Ante Pavelic who committed a terrible genocide against Serbs and Jews between 1941 and 1945. It is estimated that more than 600. 000 of them were killed in that period. After WW II, and during the last fifty years, the Serbian and Croatian population lived in perfect harmony. This is proven by the fact that between 15 and 20 per cent of the children born there come from the mixed marriages between the Serbs and Croats. Unfortunately, the upheavals of the last three years had suddenly put into question the peaceful co-existence of those two peoples, particularly since Croatia one-sidedly decided to secede and leave the Yugoslav federation. This decision is against the norms of the international law.
The Zagreb Government wanted to preserve the internal, administrative borders set up by Tito in 1974, which were not international in character. The new Croatian constitution neglected the rights of Serbs and the legal status they enjoyed in the Krajina region since 15th century while they were still living under the Vienna authority. This arbitrary decision was supported first by the German government, and later by almost all of the international community. There were 700. 000 Serbs living in Krajina who did not want it to be a part of the new state. That's why they proclaimed another, sovereign state in Knin. If the Serbs in Krajina could, in the last instance, accept a sovereign Croat state, it would be only just to grant the same right to Krajina, an autonomous region since the 15th century. Thanks to the UNPROFOR, Krajina is living in peace since 1991. The one-sided Tudjman's decision to expel the 12. 500 peace keepers from Krajina represented the danger of the resumption of fierce hostilities. Under the international pressure, the president of Croatia agreed that UNPROFOR should stay, but under the condition that their number be reduced to 5. 000. He is also demanding that the UNPROFOR soldiers control the borders dividing Krajina from Serbia and Bosnia, so as to prevent the military aid from these two countries from reaching the Krajina Serbs. Were the Krajina Serbs to agree to this proposal, they would face a serious threat of the attack from the Croatian regular army. The Croatian army has, in concert with the Muslim army of Alija Izetbegovic, already intervened in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is something that gives the Krajina Serbs reasons for caution. Now that Croatia has decided to let the UN forces remain in this region, the German Foreign Minister, Claus Kinkel demanded that the president of Serbia Milosevic recognize Croatia. Milosevic refused to do so. It seems strange that the West is asking for the recognition of this country, which had never in modern history had state sovereignty, and which refuses to recognize Yugoslavia, now reduced to Serbia and Montenegro, which exists since 1918, and which had been one of the founders of the United Nations in 1944. Of all the former Yugoslav republics, only Serbia and Montenegro had been independent states in the 19th century. The Croatian government and Krajina should find a solution that would guarantee autonomy for the Krajina Serbs, which is the only way of reaching a lasting peace in that region of the former Yugoslavia.
- By CHRIS HEDGES 1995 New York Times News Service, 9/30/95
serbian_krajina -68364 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people
CROAT AGGRESSION: OPERATION 'LIGHTENING' AND 'STORM'
Playing on the card of inter-Serbian divisions under changed strategic circumstances, after having armed themselves very well and obtained the support in the international environment, Franjo Tudjman and his followers were constantly instigating and provoking "the hard liners" in the Republic of Serbian Krajina to suspend negotiations and renounce on the implementation of the Zagreb agreement on economic issues. This actually happened by the end of April 1995. Once having received the desired excuse, Croat army on May 1, 1995 penetrated the northern part of the Republic of Serbian Krajina and occupied Western Slavonia. In a cruel and brief military encounter (operation "Lightening") Western Slavonia was cleaned of Serbian old-settlers who escaped to the Republic of Srpska and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Encouraged by this military victory, Croat authorities immediately started preparations for the attack on Knin, the main stronghold and heart of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Zagreb was still playing on the card of interior divisions within the Krajina authorities, which did not draw any lessons from the loss of Western Slavonia, but retained a repulsive attitude towards political negotiations about the plan Z-4. Instead of politically evaluating the fact that Republic of Croatia did not in full accept the plan Z-4, because it was of the view that this plan is offering to the Krajina Serbs a too high degree of political and cultural autonomy, the authorities in Knin with the support of the leadership of the Republic of Srpska in Pale, imprudently pushed the Serbian people of Krajina into a new war adventure. This was perhaps the loss of a historical chance to avoid the Croat aggression and obstruct the true intentions of Croatia, a chance in the face of international public to reveal how much Fascist-oriented the Croat politics are, which was soon to be seen in action. After the failure of negotiations on August 3, 1995 in Geneva, a brutal aggression of Croatia on the Republic of Serbian Krajina took place. The consequence is the mass exodus of the Serbian people, unprecedented in the recent European history. The Republic of Serbian Krajina over only a few days, faced with the attack of over 100, 000 Croat soldiers within the military operation "Storm", was almost completely ethnically cleansed. It is a question of a strategically well thought out and tactically very well prepared and conducted military operation with the direct cooperation of the American military experts, with the logistic support of the NATO military structure and of the western sponsors of the Republic of Croatia. The most influential political and state centers in the West have only formally condemned the aggression of Croatia, while in the essence they are satisfied with such an outcome. By applying the policy of double standards, however, the Croat allies have found themselves at a loss how to justify the most massive exodus of one people from its centuries long homes. Not little confusion was caused also by the direct announcement of settling there of Croats - "Croatization of Krajina", and the factual banning of return of the exiled Serbs. Crimes committed over Serbian civilians, including a large number of women, children and aged, have caused the great part of the world public, even the western and mostly anti-Serbian, to be appalled.
CROATIZATION OF KRAJINA
Croat leader Franjo Tudjman immediately following the exodus of 250, 000 Serbs from the Republic of Serbian Krajina announced settling of Croats in this emptied space, Croats from all over the world. He publicly called upon them to come to Serbian Krajina and appropriate the homes and farms of exiled Krajina Serbs. Having forcibly and by military occupation changed the demographic structure of Serbian Krajina, now certain Croat leaders, as is the notorious Croat nationalist and chauvinist in the Croat parliament (Sabor) Vladimir Seks, are demanding the census of population. In accordance with the results obtained from this census which is well known in advance - Seks proposes to abolish the constitutional law of the Republic of Croatia on the rights of national communities or minorities. This law was formally granting Serbs a special status in the counties in which they were a majority. "The Ethnically Clean Croatia" - an unrealized dream of both Hitler and Pavelic - would now become a reality 50 years after their miserable fall. But Serbs who had a large share in the victory of the anti-Nazi coalition, are now expelled from the homes of their ancestors, robbed and humiliated, and are suffering once again from the arms and plans of a new and a rather strange genocidal alliance. The reports of the United Nations representatives are bearing witness to plundering of Serbian property, burning down and mining by eplosives of Serbian homes and killing of the remaining, mostly aged Serbs who were unable either to hide themselves or evacuate on time. President of the Croat Sabor, Nedeljko Mihanovic, reproaching those who are calling upon the exiled Serbs to return, said that the eventual return of Serbs "could complicate Croat future". For the Serbs never again to even wish to return to the Serbian Krajina, care was taken by the Croat chauvinists who have in an organized way attacked, harassed and stoned endless and kilometers long convoys of refugees moving towards the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. This has appalled even those who are on the Croat side such as the U. S. Ambassador in Zagreb Peter Gallbright. The exiled Serbs have found refuge in the homeland - the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). In the country which is still chained by sanctions, economically impoverished and pushed years into underdevelopment, suppressed and humiliated by the so-called democratic world. Even under such circumstances, just like in the far away year of 1941, Serbia and Montenegro have remained fully opened to the refuged Serbs. So far over 150, 000 refugees Serbs from Serbian Krajina have been registered who have entered Serbia and Montenegro.
SERBIAN KRAJINA: LAND WITHOUT PEOPLE
Croat President Franjo Tudjman, under the pressures from abroad and the pressure of testimonies, now is "correcting himself" and saying that Croatia "will receive those individuals (without mentioning Serbs) who have not done any wrong and who wish to come to Croatia as its citizens". Therefore, only individuals from amongst some 500, 000 of refugees, Serbs, from the beginning of war in 1991 (during the latest exodus of 1995 Serbian lands were abandoned by some 250, 000 Serbs) can return to the regions where they have lived for over 400 years. Serbian Krajina is now a land without people. In this respect, there is a characteristic statement by the member of the Helsinki Federation for Human Rights William Hayden who states that the return of exiled Serbs in Krajina is systematically obstructed. Croat claims that there was no burning of civilian property or plundering, Hayden has denounced as false, accusing the Croat Army of systematic plundering and burning down of Serbian homes. In this way he has only confirmed previous finds of the representatives of the United Nations. Ethnic cleansing of Serbs, as a constant line of the Croat politics, could soon be also attempted in Eastern Slavonia. Such an attempt could have grave not to say fatal consequences not only for the Serbian and Croat people, but also for the other peoples in the Balkans and in Europe.
serbian_krajina -68363 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people
ROOTS OF CROAT SECESSION IN 1991
In the period 1945-1991 the position of Krajina Serbs in the federal Croatia was only at the beginning in accordance with the proclaimed principles established in Topusko. The aspirations of Croats to have their own and ethnically pure state (without Serbs) were only temporarily suppressed by the fall of NDH in the World War Two. These tendencies, however, were revived again by the beginning of the seventies in order to reach their peak in the year 1971 in the form the so-called Maspok (or Mass Movement). At that time the Croat political leaders swimming down the stream of Croat nationalism, under the influence of immigration and revival of neo-Ustashis, made a demand for an independent state of Croatia. This attempt was a failure, but in the new federal Constitution of the year 1974 and republican constitutions of the year 1976, political assumptions were given for the secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia. At the same time, this marked the beginning of new persecution and exodus of Krajina Serbs, but only the appropriate moment was awaited for the decisive pressure to be made. When Tito died in 1980, the road was open for this to be brought into life. At the head of the movement for secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia - the Croat Democratic Community (HDZ) - came the retired General Franjo Tudjman, a Croat nationalist of conviction. He was creating political prerequisites, with the nationalists in Croatia and those abroad - the descendants of the Ustashi movement, for the achievement of secessionist aims and chauvinist anti-Serbian targets. Tudjman made also political and other preparations for such an action, he asked for and obtained support from abroad, most of all the support of Germany and of Vatican, therefore, those same centers which at the time have helped Ante Pavelic create his monstrous, genocidal and Fascist NDH in 1941. Franjo Tudjman who is now proclaimed "father of the Croat nation", was building his program of the new Croat state on the nationalistic and chauvinistic traditions of the "first father of the nation" Ante Starcevic and his successor Josip Frank. It is the question here of the rascist concept of the ethnically "clean Croat state". Ante Starcevic was basing his political concept on the slogan that "Croatia belongs to Croats only", that "in Croat lands (including Serbian Krajina) only one people is a political one - the Croat people", that in Croatia "Serbs are not recognized as people". Similar to the Fascist ideology, the idea was also based on the racist, national and religious superiority of Croats over Serbs. In a word, Serbs are nothing, while Croats are a superior race and thus, Croat people can not renew its national state without previously exterminating or expelling the Serbian people. Such insane ideas have served as basis for the formation of Tudjman's program for the creation of "the independent democratic Croatia", whose realization has started by the end of the eighties. The said ideas have found their place in the program of the HDZ the ruling political party of the Croat Democratic Community, headed by Franjo Tudjman. By accepting the symbols of the one-time Ustashi state, Franjo Tudjman, the undisputed leader of the HDZ, says for the Pavelic's NDH even before the secession of Croatia, that it was not a bare "Quisling concoction and a Fascist crime, but an expression of historical strives of Croat people to obtain its own independent state and recognition by the international factors". In this way Franjo Tudjman obviously is trying to establish a continuity between the NDH and the present-day Croatia and with this fact justify all the crimes, ethnic cleansing and extermination of Serbs which, unfortunately, did happen in the civil war of 1991-1995, just as it did in 1941.
FORMATION OF THE WESTERN-MOST SERBIAN STATE
Guided by the historical remembrances, educated by the previous terrible experiences and directly faced with a neo-Ustashi and Fascist ideology at work, Serbs in Serbian Krajina at the beginning of nineties decided to fight for survival on the soil and in the land in which they have been living for centuries. Defending themselves from the new and probably even more atrocious genocide and ethnic cleansing after the secession of Croatia from Yugoslavia, Serbs offered resistance and formed their own state - the Republic of Serbian Krajina with the capital in Knin and the areas in which the Serbian people is living. This was an understandable reaction, under the given circumstances, because by the decisions of the Croat authorities, all the achievements of the anti-Fascist Serbian struggle in the period 1941-1945 have been abolished: after having been deleted from the new Croat constitution as a constituent people, Serbs were transformed into a minority. Starting from the right of Serbian people to self-determination, Serbs in the Republic of Serbian Krajina have, after the secession of Croatia, adopted their own Constitution, formed their own Assembly, Government and judiciary as well as other state institutions. Republic of Croatia under Franjo Tudjman openly strived at any cost to subjugate the Republic of Serbian Krajina and did not abstain from violating international agreements, such as the Vance's plan. This plan was guaranteeing Serbs in Serbian Krajina the protection of the United Nations and was making possible negotiations with the Croat state, without prejudice to the final political solution. Authorities of the Krajina Serbs in Knin, with the support of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, persistently were striving to reach with the Republic of Croatia, through the mediation of the international community, a reasonable and mutually acceptable political agreement. Krajina Serbs and their representatives, of course, did not have any illusion as to what are the final aims of the new Croat state. And they were: expulsion of Serbs from their centuries long hearths or their subjugation (Nolens, volens).
International mediators have offered their plan which would secure for the Serbs in Serbian Krajina an incomplete political (without Constitution, army and foreign policy) and complete cultural autonomy, but all this within the framework of "the internationally recognized borders of the Republic of Croatia". According to this plan economic, cultural and other links of Serbs in Serbian Krajina with Serbs in the motherland would be allowed and in the other Serbian countries, and in international organizations. Serbs in Serbian Krajina would have their own coat-of-arms and their flag, their language and alphabet "Cyrillic", their radio-television, police force, their own currency and their president. Krajina government would conduct independent fiscal policy, and the corresponding Krajina legislative bodies would pass laws and there would be a judicial power with first-instance and appellate courts of law. Serbs in Serbian Krajina would take part in election of the central government in Zagreb, of the Croat parliament (Sabor) and the Croat president. One of the renown and reputable Serbian intellectuals who did not refuse political agreement between Serbs and the Croat state, otherwise the president of the Serbian Independent Party, Milorad Pupovac, is of opinion that it is a question of the political autonomy which is having roots in the status which Serbian Krajina already had in the past, when it was Military Krajina, with the difference that now it would not be linked directly with Vienna but with Zagreb.
Krajina authorities in Knin were divided in the views as to how they should react to the constat military threats and political pressures from the Republic of Croatia, for the Republic of Serbian Krajina to accept the so-called "peaceful re-integration into the Croat state", and to the attempts by the international community to mediate in finding political solution within the plan Z-4. One line was against negotiations, saying that it was only a play and introduction to total subjugation of the Republic of Serbian Krajina to the new Croat authorities. Thus, it was persistent in refusing the plan Z-4 which also included the military resistance if the Republic of Croatia should try a re-integration by force. This line counted on the support of the opposition in Belgrade. Yugoslav authorities have in principle supported the Z-4 plan. The second and more realistic and pragmatic line in Knin - as well as the government in Serbia - was of opinion that there should be negotiations with the Republic of Croatia. The basis for negotiations in the first phase was the Zagreb agreement between the Krajina Serbs and Croat authorities on the economic issues, as well as the opening of the Zagreb-Belgrade highway, of the oil pipeline and the railway line Zagreb-Split via Knin. This political line of negotiation was supported also by the former Krajina prime minister, a renown businessman Borislav Mikelic, who had in this a clear support of Belgrade, i. e. of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the end of war of 1991/1992 by the arrival of the United Nations peace forces in Croatia and Bosnia, it had decided in favor of solving the Serbian issue, i. e. the position of Serbs on the other side of Drina River, by political means and with the mediation of the international community, thus, only through negotiations. Such an approach was only formally suitable for the Croat leaders to the extent to which it was making an illusion for the local and international public on the alleged good intentions of the new Croat state.
serbian_krajina -68362 - 07.04.2012 : Serbian Government Beograd - (0)
Dossier Serbian Krajina: A country without people
AFTER THE AGGRESSION OF CROATIA ON THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIAN KRAJINA
It is written in the encyclopedia that the first recorded settling of Serbs in Krajina started as early as the 15th century, after the penetration of Turks further inland in the Balkan Peninsula and after the fall of the Bosnian state. In order to prevent further progress of Turks towards Central Europe, Austro-Hungary in the area of the present-day Serbian Krajina formed from Serbs, a strong defence fortification, or more precisely, a zone defended by the Serbian soldiers. And they were at that time considered to be the best in Europe. The so-called Military Krajina (Vojna Krajina) comprised northern Dalmatia, Lika, Kordun, Banija and Bosnian Krajina ( Western Bosnia). Serbian population and Serbian settlers in these areas were receiving from the Court in Vienna the land and were exempt from taxes and other dues, as one of the conditions for them to serve the army and defend Krajina from the new Turkish penetrations towards Central Europe. At that time, Serbs in Military Krajina had their cultural and religious autonomy, as well as a political (people's) self-administration. They were privileged (richer social strata of citizens and free farmers) in respect to the majority of serfs under the Hungarian feudal lords. Only a few of the noblemen from amongst Croats could expect to make a military carrier and better themselves in the social status. For this reason, many serfs-Croats, dissatisfied with their position, were joining Krajina Serbs and were thus freed from feudal and serfal servitude. All through the time, until the great interior crisis erupted in the Habsburg monarchy, the relations between Serbs (Orthodox) and Croats (Catholics) were mostly tolerant and correct. They were speaking the same language, they even shared the same churches with two altars, which has remain the practice until the 19th century. Therefore, the main and the significant difference between them was in their social status. If there were some disputes, they never had an ethnic character. The time of growing Catholicism and the withdrawal of Turks towards the south-east in the 17th and the 18th century, however, was the time when first intolerance started to erupt.
FIRST DISPUTES BETWEEN SERBS AND CROATS
The growth and strengthening of the Catholic Church in these areas has initiated the eruption of violent unification (conversion of Serbs). Against their fee will, forced to adopt Roman-Catholic religious services, parts of Serbs in Krajina and especially in northern Dalmatia and the Coastal area, were gradually losing their ethnic character and were assimilated by the Croat (Catholic) environment. Those Serbs who did not renounce on their Orthodox faith, as well as those who have accepted the conversion but have retained their ethnic (Serbian) awareness, were being persecuted. This became especially emphatic with the strengthening of the Croat etatistic consciousness (in the second half of 19th century) and under the circumstances of weakening of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and the departure of Turks from the Balkans, which left Serbs in Krajina practically devoid of their role of the European defense shield. In spite of these unfavorable developments of the historical circumstances for Serbs, they maintained in Military Krajina their compact ethnic entity. Historical events also helped them when in the year 1918, after the fall of the Austro Hungarian empire, the first Yugoslavia was created, where Serbs had given the greatest contribution through the Balkan liberation wars, expulsion of Turks from the Balkans and the victory in the World War One. In this first Yugoslavia, however, the feud between Serbs and Croats continued, to be accelerated by the coming into power of Hitler in Germany in the year 1933 and the assassination of King Alexander Karadjordjevic in 1934. Immediately prior to the World War Two the disputes between Serbs and Croats resulted, under the exterior pressure of Germany, in the formation of the Banovina Croatia. After the fall of Germany and Italy and the disintegration of the First Yugoslavia in 1941, on a broader area of Banovina Croatia and with the support of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was created. It is a question here of a puppet-state, a Ustashi-Fascist concoction which included also the region of Serbian (Military) Krajina. That is when the first massive genocide started over Serbs and a mass exodus of Serbian people towards Serbia. In the basic Ustashi ideology of the NDH the key position was devoted to the program of extermination of Serbs, Jews and Gypsies and the creation of an ethnically "clean Croat state". In the period 1941-1945 some 900, 000 Serbs were killed, and several hundreds of thousands of Serbs, escaping in the face of the Ustashi criminals, had found refuge in Serbia.
KRAJINA SERBS DURING WORLD WAR TWO
After the fall of the First Yugoslavia in 1941, faced with the danger of total annihilation in the Ustashi-Fascist state of Ante Pavelic, Krajina Serbs rebelled. They formed one of the strongest resistance movements in Europe. Military skills of Krajina Serbs based on centuries-long tradition of military resistance to Turks, now came to the fore. Thus, the main body of partisan units in the anti-Fascist struggle of the Yugoslav partisans in the territory of the NDH, for a long time - until September 1943 - consisted mostly of the Krajina Serbs. The key military positions in the ranks of the partisan army were held by the very able warriors - Serbian officers, and the largest number of victims in the people's liberation war 1941-1945 was suffered by Serbs. The experience of genocide and their role in the people's liberation war were the main reasons why, after the end of the war and liberation of the country in 1945, Krajina Serbs in the then-federal Croatia as a component part of second Yugoslavia, were granted the status of the constituent people. At the session of the Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia held in Topusko in 1944, a historical agreement was reached between Serbs and Croats on an equitable joint life in the joint federal state of Croatia within the framework of second Yugoslavia.
ww1 -67822 - 15.03.2012 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (1)
The battle of Cer and 'March on river Drina'
The battle of Cer was one of the greatest battles of WW1. The brilliant tactics of the Serbian generals became a part of many military books and it is still studied in many military schools around the world.
When the war started, commander of Balkan Army feldzeigmeister Oscar von Potiorek decided to make offensive with only two Armies:
The 2nd Army on the North was suppose to perform demonstative attacks to tide main Serbian forces until 18. august, when it will be transported to Russian front.
On the orther side, Serbian High command (Marshal Radomir Putnik-the head; General Zivojin Misic-the assistant) made defensive plan with making counter attack when it become possible. They expected that Austro-Hungarians will attack from north along Morava or Kolubara valley. For that reason, they made this plan:
Austro-Hungarian offensive 12th-16th august
Austro-Hungarian Army become offensive by plan, but advancing was very slow. Serbian III Army with only two divisions was very tough. On south west Serbian Uzice Army made a little offensive on Visegrad (Вишеград) with Montenegrian Sandzak Army.
When the Serbian High command realised that main offensive is from the west, so they sent the 2nd Army with its Moravian (Моравска) I call division and Combined division on mountain Cer to hit the left flank of Austro-Hungarian forces which had advanced along Jadar valley and with its Sumadinian (Шумадијска) I call division to retake Sabac. Cavalry division will be the connetction between those two groups. But Moravian First call division and Combined division, which formed Cer group in their attempt to hit the flank of forces in Jadar valley were advancing straight to the head of those Austro-Hungarian forces who had advanced along Lesnica (9. and 21. landwehr division) valley.
The Cer battle (16th-20th august) Combined division was suprised when it came to the head of Austro-Hungarian 21. landwehr division. The first shooting was in the night 15/16th august near village Tekeris (Текериш). Moravian First call division (prvopozivci) was on the south of Combined division and fought against the head of the 9. division. Austro-Hungarian forces in Jadar valley advanced to village Zavlaka and conquered town Krupanj (Крупањ). In one moment Moravian I call division was forced to pull back. Combined division crushed 21. landwehr division and took the ridges Trojan and Kosanin grad on the top of the Cer mountain. So, it hitted the left flank of 9. division, and after that Cer group hitted the left flank of Austro-Hungarian forces in Jadar. The rest of the II Army retook Sabac and provice Macva (Мачва).
The Austro-Hungarians was retreating in disorder. This was a total victory of a small, but brave Serbian Army. Commander of II Army, Stepa Stepanovic (Степа Степановић) became a marshal (Војвода). Casaulties were hard for Serbia who was not recovered from Balkan wars: 4785 dead or missing and 11215 wounded.
Austro-Hungarians had 25000 killed and wounded and 4500 captured.
After the battle, composer Stanislav Binički (Станислав Бинички) made composition "March on Drina" (Марш на Дрину) Some call this "The Serbian Marseillese" later was added the text, and it is today the most popular patriotic song in Serbia. Text (translated) to English:
go on all of you heroes,
Go on and don't regret your lifes
Let Cer see the front,
let Cer hear the battle
and river Drina glory,
courage and heroic hand
of father and son!
Drina, you cold water,
Remeber, tell when they were falling,
Remember brave front,
which is full of fire,
force, power Banned the foreigner
from our dear river!
Sing, sing, Drina,
tell the generations,
how We were fighting brave,
Front was singing,
the battle was fought
near cold water
The blood was floating,
blood was spilled on Drina
because of freedom!
Memorial complex in village Tekeris (Текериш):
On the memorial stone is written: "Your deeds are immortal!"
In 1963. a movie "March on Drina" was made about the Cer battle.
war_bosnia -36442 - 31.07.2011 : Nenad Grujic Beograd - (0)
The U. S. -al-Qaeda Alliance in BosniaSimilarly, Clinton"s interventions in Bosnia and Kosovo were presented as humanitarian. But both sides had committed atrocities in those conflicts; Like the western media, Washington downplayed the Muslim atrocities because of its other interests.
Most Americans are aware that Clinton dispatched U. S. forces to Bosnia to enforce the Dayton peace accords after a well-publicized Serbian atrocity: the massacre of thousands of Muslims at Srebrenica. Thanks to a vigorous campaign by the p. r. firm Ruder Finn, Americans heard a great deal about the Srebrenica massacre, but far less about the beheadings and other atrocities by Muslims that preceded and helped account for it.
A major reason for the Serb attack on Srebrenica was to deal with the armed attacks mounted from that base on nearby villages: "intelligence sources said it was that harassment which precipitated the Serb attack on the 1, 500 Muslim defenders inside the enclave. "27 General Philippe Morillon, commander of the UN troops in Bosnia from 1992 to 1993, testified to the ICTY (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia) that Muslim forces based in Srebrenica had "engaged in attacks during Orthodox holidays and destroyed villages, massacring all the inhabitants. This created a degree of hatred that was quite extraordinary in the region"28 According to Prof. John Schindler,
Between May and December 1992, Muslim forces repeatedly attacked Serb villages around Srebrenica, killing and torturing civilians; some were mutilated and burned alive. Even pro-Sarajevo accounts concede that Muslim forces in Srebrenica"murdered over 1, 300 Serbs"and had "ethnically cleansed a vast area. Wiebes" detailed report and the news stories based on it corroborated earlier charges made in 1997 by Sir Alfred Sherman, top adviser to Margaret Thatcher and co-founder of the influential rightwing nationalist Centre for Policy Studies, that "The U. S. encouraged and facilitated the dispatch of arms to the Moslems via Iran and Eastern Europe -- a fact which was denied in Washington at the time in face of overwhelming evidence. "43 This was part of his case that
The war in Bosnia was America's war in every sense of the word. The US administration helped start it, kept it going, and prevented its early end. Indeed all the indications are that it intends to continue the war in the near future, as soon as its Moslem proteges are fully armed and trained.
Specifically, Sherman charged that in 1992 Acting Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger had instructed Warren Zimmerman, U. S. Ambassador in Belgrade, to persuade Bosnian President Izetbegovic to renege on his agreement to preserve Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian unity, and instead accept American aid for an independent Bosnian state. 44
prosecutions -27315 - 17.03.2011 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, USA - (0)
Kentucky woman accused of Bosnian war crimes
By Jennifer Hewlett / McClatchy Newspapers (MCT)
LEXINGTON, Ky. " U. S. authorities have arrested a 51-year-old Croatian-born woman in Kentucky who is accused of war crimes against civilians during the Bosnian civil war in the 1990s.
Azra Basic, who was living in Stanton, Ky. , is accused of torturing and murdering ethnic Serbs at prison camps from April to June 1992. Bosnia and Herzegovina officials want Basic returned to that country to stand trial.
Loren "Squirrel" Carl, U. S. marshal for the Eastern District of Kentucky, would say only that Basic was arrested Tuesday in the district by the marshal service.
Documents filed in U. S. District Court in Lexington detail gruesome acts of torture and murder alleged to have been committed by Basic while she was apparently a commander in a Croatian army brigade.
Eyewitnesses Radojica Garic and Dragan Kovacevic said Basic murdered Blagoje Djuras, who had been beaten to unconsciousness by Croatian police and soldiers, by slitting his throat with a knife, according to a court document.
"After that, Azra took us by the hair and dragged us to the wound on the neck from which the blood ran and made us drink that blood, " Garic said.
Sreten Jovanovic testified he was forced to drink gasoline, beaten into unconsciousness, and had his hands and face set on fire by Basic, according to the court document.
Mile Kuzmanovic said Basic ordered him and others to swallow a handful of salt and eat Yugoslav money, then hit him with boots, weapon butts, metal bars, electrical cables and batons, the court document said.
Kuzmanovic said Basic and other soldiers forced him to lick blood off of floors covered in broken glass and to crawl on those floors with a knotted rope in his mouth, which soldiers used to pull out prisoners" teeth. Kuzmanovic said his fingernails were pulled out with pliers and that "Azra herself, made a cut on my left auricle with some kind of pliers. "
Another witness said that, in addition to cutting off Kuzmanovic"s ear, Basic carved a cross and four S"s on Kuzmanovic"s forehead.
Mormir Lazic said Basic carved crosses into the foreheads and backs of various prisoners.
The International Criminal Police Organization, commonly known as Interpol, located Basic in Kentucky in 2004. A district court in Bosnia and Herzegovina issued an international arrest warrant for Basic in October 2006. The U. S. received a formal request to extradite Basic to Bosnia and Herzegovina in February 2007.
The U. S. government requested more evidence pertaining to the alleged offenses, which Bosnian prosecutors provided in February and April 2010, according to federal court records.
Lexington attorney Patrick Nash, who is representing Basic, said he was not aware of any previous international extradition cases in the Eastern District of Kentucky.
"These are extraordinarily serious charges, so it requires an extraordinary level of care on my part, " he said. "The allegation is that she was a participant in this war. By all accounts this war was very complicated, with religious elements in it. I"m not sure that present-day historians even have a handle on it as to what happened during that war, " Nash said.
Basic was born Azra Alesevic on June 22, 1959, in Rijeka, Croatia. She married Nedzad Basic on March 1, 1994, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, according to court records.
history_1992 -23700 - 13.02.2010 : Gene D.y. St. Louis - (0)
A Question about Croatian History
bih_alkaida -22546 - 14.09.2009 : Ratko Obrenovic Detroit, Usa - (1)
Experts Debate the Influence of Islamism During the Bosnian War of 1992 to 1995
By Judith Latham, Washington
The role of the mujahadeen, or holy warriors, in Afghanistan during the 1980"s has become well known in the six years since the 9/11 attacks on New York and Washington. But some Balkan analysts say that in the 1990"s Bosnia served as a "crucible for the global jihad" led by Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaida organization.
John Schindler, a professor of strategy at the Naval War College, is the author of a new book, Unholy Terror: Bosnia, Al-Qaida, and the Rise of Global Jihad, in which he argues that Bosnia played an identical role in the global jihad as did Afghanistan a decade earlier. Daniel Nelson is the author of six books, including The Balkan Imbroglio. Mr. Nelson, whose association with the former Yugoslavia extends over 35 years, disagrees with Mr. Schindler that radical Islam played a "formative role" in the creation of the Bosnian conflict of 1992 to 1995.
Speaking with host Judith Latham of VOA News Now"s Encounter Program, Mr. Schindler says he wrote his book because information on the link between Bosnia and the global jihad was virtually unknown in the United States. In it he traces the growth of al-Qaida from a "South Asian terror problem" into a global threat, and he says it was in Bosnia that al-Qaida "metastasized into a global jihad organization. " Mr. Schindler says he holds former Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic as the person most responsible that the Bosnian War of 1992-95 unfolded in the "horrible way that it did. "
Daniel Nelson, who is also president of Global Concepts and Communications, an international consulting firm in Alexandria, Virginia, and senior fellow at the Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation in Washington, says that, although former President Izetbegovic was unquestionably a "savvy politician" who was also corrupt, these characteristics were "even more true" of former Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and former Croatian President Franjo Tudjman. To suggest that there was an "organic linkage" between what happened in Bosnia with the events of 9/11, Mr. Nelson insists, is a gross exaggeration.
In the case of the February 1994 marketplace massacre in Sarajevo, in which many Bosnian Muslim civilians lost their lives, Mr. Schindler says that " contrary to television reportage " the Serbs were not the responsible party. He suggests that that it was "probably a Muslim effort to kill their own citizens to gain sympathy, which they did on numerous occasions as part of a broader strategy to induce Western intervention in the war. " But Daniel Nelson calls that claim "absurd" and "beyond the pale. "
The Srebrenica massacre was the largest mass murder in Europe since World War II
John Schindler identifies the 1995 Srebrenica massacre of more than 7, 000 Muslim men and boys at the hands of the Bosnian Serbs as the "turning point in the war. " It was, he says, primarily an act of "revenge, " which had its origins in "Muslim atrocities against Serbs. " He furthermore blames the tragedy mainly on the Izetbegovic government in Sarajevo, which he says used it to gain Western intervention. But Daniel Nelson calls Srebrenica "planned mass murder" and an instance of "genocide, " and he argues furthermore that revenge is "no exoneration for mass murder. "
Regarding the role of "Islamism" in Bosnia, John Schindler identifies Iran and Saudi Arabia as "influential players" in shaping the political and cultural scene in the 1990"s. Daniel Nelson disagrees that Bosnia is an "Islamicist" state today, and he says that Mr. Schindler "greatly over-exaggerates" the effect of Bosnia as a linchpin for the Islamicist global movement.
John Schindler's claims are extraordinary and reflect a keen debate inside the National Security Agency in the period after 9/11. Both he and Daniel Nelson were privy to classified materials, but came to opposite conclusions.
kosovo_eng -17721 - 25.04.2008 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (0)
Harry de Quetteville: Snippets from Carla Del Ponte's book Published in British Telegraph on April 11, 2008, The Vanouver Sun, Canada on April 12, 2008 and many other newspapers
Serb prisoners 'were stripped of their organs in Kosovo war'Serb prisoners had their internal organs removed and sold by ethnic Albanians during the Kosovo war, according to allegations in a new book by the world's best known war crimes prosecutor.
Carla Del Ponte, who stepped down in January as chief prosecutor at the Hague tribunal for crimes committed in the Balkan wars of the 1990s, said investigators found a house suspected of being a laboratory for the illegal trade.
A senior adviser to Hashim Thaci, Kosovo's prime minister and a leading member of the Kosovo Liberation Army which is accused of benefiting from the trade, yesterday denied the allegations.
"These are horrible things even to imagine, " said Bekim Collaku. "But this is a product of her (Miss Del Ponte's) imagination. "
Miss Del Ponte reports that the allegations were made by several sources, one of whom "personally made an organ delivery" to an Albanian airport for transport abroad, and "confirmed information directly gathered by the tribunal".
According to the sources, senior figures in the Kosovo Liberation Army were aware of the scheme, in which hundreds of young Serbs were allegedly taken by truck from Kosovo to northern Albania where their organs were removed. Miss Del Ponte provides grim details of the alleged organ harvesting, and of how some prisoners were sewn up after having kidneys removed.
"The victims, deprived of a kidney, were then locked up again, inside the barracks, until the moment they were killed for other vital organs. In this way, the other prisoners were aware of the fate that awaited them, and according to the source, pleaded, terrified, to be killed immediately, " Miss Del Ponte writes.
The claims in The Hunt: Me and War Criminals have renewed tensions between Serbia and its former province of Kosovo, which declared independence two months ago. In it, the Swiss ex-prosecutor reveals how her efforts to bring alleged war criminals to justice were stymied by lack of co-operation from all sides - Serb, Albanian and even Nato. But it is her report of the organ traffic that has caused most shock, even in a region long hardened to horror.
Hashim Thaci in 1999 while head of the Kosovo Liberation Army"s political directorate
Vladan Batic, Serbia's former justice minister, said: "If her allegations are true, then this is the most monstrous crime since the times of Mengele, and it must be made a priority, not only of the domestic judiciary but also of the Hague Tribunal. " The book reports a visit by Hague tribunal investigators to a house south of the Albanian town of Burrel where they found traces of blood across a wide area, as well as medical equipment.
"The investigators found pieces of gauze, a used syringe and two plastic IV bags encrusted with mud and empty bottles of medicine, some of which was of a muscle relaxant often used in surgical operations, " she writes. However, she concludes that the finds do not amount to sufficient proof for a war crimes tribunal. In Belgrade, the Serbian capital, an association of families of Serbs still listed as missing since the Kosovo war, said it would sue Miss Del Ponte, alleging that she had failed to act over the alleged organ-farming scandal. Serbia's war crimes office announced it had opened its own investigation.
The book has also prompted concern in Switzerland, where it has been criticised for tarnishing the country's celebrated neutrality, particularly as Miss Del Ponte has been named as the Swiss ambassador to Argentina.
In Belgrade, Natasha Kandic, the highly respected head of the investigative Humanitarian Law Centre, said ordinary Serbs "welcome the publication of this book" but said allegations of organ-smuggling were "rumours". "I talked to her many times, she never told me about this, " said Miss Kandic.
srebrenica_hoax -16524 - 02.12.2007 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (0)
Was Srebrenica a Hoax?(1)
By Carlos Martins Branco, Emperor's Clothes, 4 March 1998
Publisher's note: I have included this document concerning the massacre of Moslem civilians in Srebenica in 1995, not because of the question it raises, but because of the ideological uses to which people have put the issue. ?
It is now two years since the Muslim enclave, Srebrenica, fell into the hands of the Serbian army in Bosnia. Much has been written about the matter. Nonetheless the majority of reports have been limited to a broad media exposure of the event, with very little analytic rigour. Discussion of Srebrenica cannot be limited to genocide and mass graves, which has been almost a banal occurrence throughout ex-Yugoslavia. A rigorous analysis of the events must take into consideration the background circumstances, in order to understand the real motives which led to the fall of the enclave.
The zone of Srebrenica, like almost all of Eastern Bosnia, is characterized by very rugged terrain. Steep valleys with dense forests and deep ravines make it impossible for combat vehicles to pass, and offers a clear advantage to defensive forces. Given the resources available to both parties, and the characteristics of the terrain, it would seem that the Bosnian army (Armija muslimanske BiH) had the necessary force to defend itself, if it had used full advantage of the terrain. This, however, did not occur.
Given the military advantage of the (Muslim) defensive forces it is very difficult to explain the absence of military resistance. The Muslim forces did not establish an effective defensive system and did not even try to take advantage of their heavy artillery, under control of the United Nations (UN) forces, at a time in which they had every reason to do so.
The lack of (Muslim) military response stands in clear contrast to the offensive attitude which characterized the actions of the (Muslim) defensive forces in previous siege situations, which typically launched violent raids against the Serbian villages surrounding the enclave, thus producing heavy casualties amongst the Serbian civilian population.
But in this instance, with the attention of the media focused upon the area, military defence of the enclave would have revealed the true situation in security zones, and demonstrated that these had never been genuinely demilitarized zones as was claimed, but harboured highly-armed (Muslim) military units. Military resistance would jeopardize the image of (Muslims as) victims, which had been so carefully constructed, and which the Muslims considered it was vital to maintain.
Throughout the entire operation it was clear that there were profound disagreements among the leaders of the enclave. From a military viewpoint, there was total confusion. (Naser) ORIC, the charismatic commander of Srebrenica, was absent.
The Sarajevo government did not authorize his return in order to lead the resistance. Military power fell into the hands of his lieutenants, who had a long history of incompatibility. The absence of Oric's clear leadership led to a situation of total ineptitude. The contradictory orders of his successors completely paralysed the forces under siege.
The behaviour of the political leaders is also interesting. The local SDP president, Zlatko Dukic, in an interview with European Union observers, explained that Srebrenica formed part of a business transaction which involved a logistical support route to Sarajevo, via (the Sarajevo suburb of) Vogosca. He also claimed that the fall of the enclave formed part of an orchestrated campaign to discredit the West and win the support of Islamic countries. This was the reason for (Nasir) Oric to maintain distance from his troops. This thesis was also defended by the local supporters of the SDA (the Party of Democratic Action party of Alija Izetbegovic.) There were also many rumours of a trade within the local population of the enclave.
Another curious aspect was the absence of a military reaction from the 2nd Corps of the Muslim army Šoutside of the enclave? , which did nothing to relieve the military pressure on the enclave. It was common knowledge that the (Bosnian) Serb unit in the region, the Drina Corps, was exhausted and that the attack on Srebrenica was only possible with the aid of units from other regions. Despite this fact, Sarajevo did not lift a finger in order to launch an attack which would have divided the Serbian forces and exposed the vulnerabilities created by the concentration of (Bosnian Serb) resources around Srebrenica. Such an attack would have reduced the military pressure on the enclave.
It is also important to register the pathetic appeal of the president of Opstina Šwhich means Ðu2018county, Ðu2019 in Serbo-Croatian? , Osman Suljic, on July 9, 1995 which implored military observers to say to the world that the Serbians were using chemical weapons. The same gentleman later accused the media of transmitting false news items on the resistance of troops in the enclave, requiring a denial from the UN. According to Suljic, the Muslim troops did not respond, and would never respond with heavy artillery fire. Simultaneously, he complained of the lack of food supplies and of the humanitarian situation. Curiously, (the U. N.) observers were never allowed to inspect the (Srebrenica Muslim) food reserve deposits. The emphasis given by political leaders on the lack of military response and the absence of food provisions loosely suggests an official policy which began to be discernible.
(Note from TENC: What Branco writes above about chemical weapons is not entirely clear. In a discussion of this text on the T-Watch list, Branco was clearer, stating that one of the crucial questions about Srebrenica was, "Why did they (the Muslim leadership inside Srebrenica) pressure us to pass the lie of Serbs attacking with chemical gas? " For his full list of crucial questions about Srebrenica, see footnote.)
In mid 1995, the prolongation of the war had dampened public interest. There had been a substantial reduction in the pressure of public opinion (against the Serbs) in the western democracies. An incident of this importance would nonetheless provide hot news material for the media during several weeks, could awaken public opinion and incite new passions. In this manner it would be possible to kill two birds with one stone: pressure could be laid to bear in order to lift the embargo (i. e. , the much-ignored international ban on arming the Bosnian Muslim extremists) and simultaneously the occupying countries would find it difficult to withdraw their forces, a (possiblity) which had been advanced by leading UN figures such as Akashi and Boutros-Boutros Ghali.
srebrenica_hoax -16523 - 02.12.2007 : Zeljko Tomic Sokolac - (0)
Was Srebrenica a Hoax?(2)
As early as 1993, at the time of the first crisis of the enclave, )(President of Republika Srpska Dr. Radovan) Karadzic had proposed to Izetbegovic to exchange Srebrenica for the (Sarajevo) suburb of Vogošća. This exchange included the movement of populations in both directions. This was the purpose of secret negotiations in order to avoid undesirable publicity. This implied that the western countries accepted and encouraged ethnic separation.
The truth is that both the Americans and President Izetbegovic had tacitly agreed that it made no sense to insist in maintaining these isolated enclaves in a divided Bosnia. In 1995 nobody believed any longer in the inevitability of ethnic division of the territory. In the month of June 1995, before the military operation in Srebrenica, Alexander Vershbow, Special Assistant to President Clinton stated that "America should encourage the Bosnians to think in terms of territories with greater territorial coherence and compactness. " In other words this meant that the enclaves should be forgotten. The attack on Srebrenica, with no help from Belgrade, was completely unnecessary and proved to be one of the most significant examples of the political failure of the Serbian leadership.
Meanwhile the western media exacerbated the situation by transforming the enclaves into a powerful mass-media icon; a situation which Izetbegovic was quick to exploit. CNN had daily broadcasts of the (supposed) images of "mass graves for thousands of corpses, " (supposedly) obtained from spy satellites. Despite the (supposed) microscopic precision in the localization of these "graves, " it is certain that no discovery to date has confirmed such suspicions. Since there are no longer restrictions on ŠNATO troops? movement (throughout Bosnia) , we inevitably speculate on why they have still not been shown to the world.
(Note from EC: Mr. Branco is using irony to convey his belief that the supposed mass graves do not exist. However, given the effect of media repetition of the supposed massacre story, irony is easily missed; hence our repeated insert of "supposed. ")
If there had been a premeditated (Serbian) plan of genocide, instead of attacking in only one direction, from the south to the north"which left the possibility of escape to the north and west, the Serbs would have established a siege in order to ensure that no one escaped. The UN observation posts to the north of the enclave were never disturbed and remained in activity after the cessation of military operations. There are obviously mass graves in the outskirts of Srebrenica as in the rest of ex-Yugoslavia where combat has occurred, but there are no grounds for the campaign which was mounted, nor the numbers advanced by CNN. (Large graves are often dug after a battle in order to dispose of bodies as part of battlefield clean-up. "EC)
The mass graves are filled by a limited number of corpses from both sides, the consequence of heated battle and combat and not the result of a premeditated plan of genocide, as occurred against the Serbian populations in Krajina, in the Summer of 1995, when the Croatian army implemented the mass murder of all Serbians found there. In this instance, (in the instance of the fall of Krajina) the media maintained an absolute silence, despite the fact that the genocide occurred over a three month period. The objective of Srebrenica was ethnic cleansing and not genocide, unlike what happened in Krajina, in which although there was no military resistance, the Croatian army decimated villages.
Despite knowledge of the fact that the enclaves were already a lost cause, Sarajevo insisted in drawing political dividends from the fact. The receptivity which had been created in the eyes of public opinion made it easier to sell the thesis of genocide.
But of even greater importance than the genocide thesis and the political isolation of the Serbs, was blackmailing of the UN: either the UN joined forces with the Sarajevo government in the conflict (which subsequently happened) or the UN would be completely discredited in the eyes of the public, leading in turn to support for Bosnia (i. e. , Bosnian Muslim extremists). Srebrenica was the last straw which led western governments to reach agreement on the need to cease their "neutrality" and commence (an open) military action against one side in the conflict Ši. e. , the Bosnian Serbs?. It was the last straw which united the West in their desire to break "Serbian bestiality". Sarajevo (the Muslim extremist so-called "government") was conscious of the fact that it lacked the military capacity to defeat the (Bosnian) Serbs. It was necessary to create conditions via which the international community (i. e. the West) could do this for them. Srebrenica played a vital role in this process.
Srebrenica represents one of a series of acts by the Serbian leaders intended to provoke the UN, in order to demonstrate their impotence. This was a serious strategic error which would cost them dear. The side which had everything to win by demonstrating the impotence of the UN was the Sarajevo leadership and not that of Pale (capital of Republika Srpska). In 1995 it was clear that the change in the status quo required a powerful intervention which would overthrow the Serbian military power. Srebrenica was one of the pretexts, resulting from the short-sightedness of the Bosnian Serbian leaders.
The besieged (Muslim) forces could have easily defended the enclave, at least for much longer, if they had been well led. It proved convenient to let the enclave fall in this manner. Since the enclave was doomed to fall, it was preferable to let this happen in the most beneficial manner possible. But this would only have been viable if Sarajevo had political initiative and freedom of movement, which would never occur at the negotiating table. The deliberate fall of the enclave might appear to be an act of terrible Machiavellian orchestration, (obviously designed in the minds of the Bosnian Muslims' US advisers"EC) but the truth is that the Sarajevo government had much to gain, as proved to be the case. Srebrenica was not a zero-sum game. The Serbians won a military victory but with highly negative political side-effects, which helped result in their definitive ostracization.
We might add a final curious note. As the UN observation posts were attacked, and proved impossible to maintain, the (UN) forces withdrew. The barricades set up by the Muslim army did not let the troops pass. These ŠUN? troops were not treated as soldiers fleeing from the front line, but rather with a sordid differentiation.
The Muslims not only refused to fight to defend themselves, they forced others (i. e. , the Dutch/UN force) to fight on their behalf. In one instance, the commander of a Dutch vehicle decided after conversations with Armija muslimanske BiH (Bosnian Muslim force) to pass (their) barrier. (Dutch positions were in front of the Muslim positions"i. e. between the Muslims forces and the attacking Serbs.) A Muslim soldier threw a hand grenade whose fragments mortally wounded him. The only UN soldier to die in the Srebrenica offensive was killed by the Muslims.
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